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Development Overview
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Public Administration

Organization for legislative administration

1. Third Republic


The military coup d’état of May 16, 1961, brought the Second Republic to an abrupt end and ushered in the Third Republic. The Military Revolution Council (MRC) came to occupy the three branches of the national government as of May 16, 1961, and began to rule by declaring martial law and issuing decrees. Having confirmed its success with the coup, the MRC renamed itself the Supreme Council for National Reconstruction (SCNR) on May 19, 1961. The SCNR amended the NGOA in October 1961, reorganizing the central government into three agencies, 12 ministries, and two departments. The function of legislative administration was detached from the Cabinet Secretariat and was again given independence as the Office of Legislation. The new OL’s organization included a Director and Vice Director, and two bureaus. The SCNR also created the Statutory Investigation Committee in 1962, ostensibly to promote the rationalization and consolidation of laws in Korea.

In July 1962, the SCNR established the Constitutional Review Committee and proposed a fifth amendment to the Constitution which advocated a return to the presidential system. The amendment was passed into law by a resolution from the SCNR and a referendum. The NGOA was accordingly amended in December 1963, by which the central government was reorganized into two agencies, 13 ministries, three departments, five administrations, and seven bureaus. As the parliamentary system disappeared and the position of Prime Minister was brought back into government, the OL was reborn as an independent agency of the central government that reported to the Prime Minister and to the head of the OL who had been elevated to the position of a Cabinet minister.
 
2. Fourth Republic


On October 17, 1972, President Park Chunghee declared emergency martial law and dissolved the National Assembly. As the Constitution of the Third Republic did not provide for any formal dissolution of the national legislature, the declaration and enforcement of martial law violently ruptured the existing constitutional order, and forcibly established the Fourth Republic. For 145 days between the declaration of the “Yushin Constitution” in October 1972 and the reconvening of the National Assembly in March 1973, the Emergency Cabinet served as the national legislature. It was this Emergency Cabinet that drafted the constitutional amendment for the Fourth Republic and organized a referendum on its passage. The NGOA was also amended in January 1973 to solidify the Yushin System by reorganizing the central government into two agencies, 13 ministries, and four departments. The status and organization of the OL under the Prime Minister’s supervision remained intact.

 

Source: Korea Institute of Public Administration. 2008. Korean Public Administration, 1948-2008, Edited by Korea Institute of Public Administration. Pajubookcity: Bobmunsa.