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Demand for education and developmental state : Private tutoring in South Korea

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Frame of Image t spent 3.5% of GDP on formal primary and secondary schooling (comparable to other OECD countries), households spent about the same amount on private tutoring. We argue that the prevalent private tutoring is a market response to the education policy of the developmental state paradigm. In order to achieve rapid economic growth, the government pushed hard for universal primary schooling and then equalization of secondary schools. The well-established pecking order in the universities and the under-provision of public education in a highly regulated educational environment has resulted in an enormous increase in private tutoring despite government's measures to reduce it.
Demand for Education and Developmental State: Private Tutoring in South Korea
1. Introduction Scholars and policy makers have grappled with the issue of the proper role of the government in the education sector in developing countries. 1 When many households are poor and cannot afford schooling even when the private return in education is higher, Schultz (1961) argues that investment in human capital through public schooling promotes economic growth. Empirical evidence on this subject seems to corroborate his thesis. Psacharopoulos (1994) reports that the highest rates of return in education are typically found in low-income countries in which such liquidity constraints are presumably more binding. By cross country regression on 35 East Asian countries, McMahon (1998) finds that more schooling, particularly th


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Title Demand for education and developmental state
Similar Titles
Sub Title

Private tutoring in South Korea

Material Type Reports
Author(English)

Kim, Sunwoong; Lee, Ju-Ho

Publisher

[Seoul]:KDI School of Public Policy and Management

Date 2001
Pages 32
Subject Country South Korea(Asia and Pacific)
Language English
File Type Documents
Original Format pdf
Subject Social Development < Education
Holding KDI School of Public Policy and Management

Abstract

As South Korea's economy grows, her education sector has expanded dramatically as well. In 2000, although the government spent 3.5% of GDP on formal primary and secondary schooling (comparable to other OECD countries), households spent about the same amount on private tutoring. We argue that the prevalent private tutoring is a market response to the education policy of the developmental state paradigm. In order to achieve rapid economic growth, the government pushed hard for universal primary schooling and then equalization of secondary schools. The well-established pecking order in the universities and the under-provision of public education in a highly regulated educational environment has resulted in an enormous increase in private tutoring despite government's measures to reduce it.