This study clarifies the meaning of government-level technology cooperation with developing countries and explores appropriate directions for the Korean government based on the analysis of the the policies, implementation and achievement of the Japanese example.
Technology cooperation with developing countries, according to OECD Development Assistance Committee (DAC), is free assistance included in the category of Official Development Assistance (ODA). It was initiated after the Second World War by the UN, led by the U.S. in its early years, and began to involve multiple countries including France, the UK, and West Germany after the establishment of OECD DAC in 1961.
Japan began its technology cooperation as the country participated in the Colombo plan in 1954. It reinforced its implementation system by becoming a member of DAC in 1961 and setting up the Overseas Technology Cooperation Agency (OTCA) and the Japan Overseas Cooperation Volunteers in 1965. It diversified its methods to include projects and training in other nations, and expanded the potential partners to every developing country. Japan established its current system in 1974 with the establishment of the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA), a specialized institution for technology cooperation.
Korea’s technology cooperation with developing countries, despite its early beginning in 1965, remains at a nascent stage with a mere $8.5 million—only 13.3% of its ODA contributions (which, in turn, constitutes 0.03% of its GNP)—by 1989. Major forms of cooperation are trainee invitations and free supply of technical service, partnering predominantly with Asian countries. The Korean government established the Overseas Technical Assistance Agency and the Seoul Institute for Vocational Training in Advanced Technology in 1989. It dispatched the Korea Youth Volunteers to developing countries in 1990, unified various related offices into the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and set up Korea International Cooperation Agency (KOICA) as a specialized body in 1991.
Korea, while focusing on reinforcing its current implementation system, should expand its level of technology cooperation to 15% of its ODA level by 1996 when the 7th 5-year economic development plan ends, and should eventually boost it to 20% of ODA—average level of advanced economies—in the long run.
To enlarge its technology cooperation and implement it efficiently, Korea, based on a comprehensive master plan, should establish a specialized body for implementation. It should enrich the existing agencies’ tasks, enlarge private sector involvement, promote consulting agencies for technology cooperation, strengthen linkage between technology and financial cooperation, refine statistical system for measuring cooperation performance, and conduct more studies on developing countries.
Keywords: technology cooperation, development assistance, official development assistance, KOICA, OECD Development Assistance Committee (DAC)
우리나라의 대개도국 기술협력 정책방향
|Subject Country||South Korea(Asia and Pacific)|
|Subject||Economy < Economic Administration
Official Aid < Multi-Sector
|Holding||KIET; KDI School|