This study aims to analyze the current states of several high-tech industries in Korea, China and Japan as of 2000, and to track the dynamic changes in the competitiveness of the sectors over time.
Korea maintains its competitiveness in sectors such as semi-conductor, computer/office devices, communication/broadcasting devices, general machinery, electrical devices, and automobile through export specialization, while the country has a low competitiveness in aircraft, medicine, chemical products, and precision devices where it relies heavily on imports. Japan is strategically exporting semi-conductor, computer/office devices, communication/broadcasting devices,chemical products, general machinery, electrical devices, precision devices, and automobiles. China stays competitive with computer/office devices,communication/broadcasting devices, and precision devices through export specialization. Comparison of Korea and Japan since 1995 reveals that Korea is generally less competitive than Japan, and is improving over time, but with some sectors, for example, semi-conductors, the country is deteriorating. Comparison of Korea and China shows that Korea is superior to China in most analyzed sectors, but the country’s competitiveness levels also show a little downward movement over time.
Korea is exercising export specialization in relation to China for most sectors where it imports heavily from Japan. China exports to Japan products such as precision devices, computer/office devices,electrical devices, and communication/broadcasting devices. In many sectors, Japan demonstrates superiority over Korea and Japan, with Korea occupying the second place. Looking into the dynamic changes of competitive edge over time reveals that China has improved in many industries, while Japan has deteriorated. Competition among the three countries is expected to intensify as Korea’s industrial structure converges to that of Japan, and China emulates Korea in its industrial structure.
In order to obtain competitiveness in high-tech industries, Korea must establish National Innovation System (NIS) where it picks sectors with competitive edge and concentrates national resources towards them, coupled with an effective technology portfolio. Korea also needs to pursue globalization, sophisticated industrial structure, comprehensive policy support for technology development, and system for division of labor and cooperation with northeast Asian countries.
Keywords: Northeast Asia, high-tech industry, export specialization, import specialization, national competitiveness
한, 중, 일간 첨단기술산업의 경쟁력 비교
|Subject Country||Eastern Asia(Asia and Pacific)
South Korea(Asia and Pacific)
|Subject||Industry and Technology < Science/Technology|
|Holding||KIET; KDI School|