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한국경제의 성장과 정부의 역할(Korea’s economic growth and government’s role: Past, present and future) : 과거, 현재, 미래

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Frame of Image 첨예하게 전개 될 것으로 전망된다. 본고는 정부의 여러 역할 가운데 경제적 역할에 초점을 맞추어 기존 의 다양한 연구결과를 종합적으로 정리하는 데 목적이 있다. 이 과정에 서 어느 한편에 치우치지 않고 중립적이며 객관적인 입장을 견지하고자 노력하였으며, 관념적․이념적 논의에서 벗어나 여러 분야에 걸친 이론 적․실증적 근거를 찾아보고자 노력하였다. 그리고 우리나라가 현시점 에서 추진해야 할 구체적인 제도 및 정책개선의 방향을 제시하고자 하 였다. 이를 위해 본고는 먼저 정부의 경제적 역할을 정의하고, 세계적 흐름 을 살펴본 후에 이에 비추어 한국경제의 발전과정에서 정부가 수행한 역할을 평가하였다. 그리고 우리나라의 경제․사회적 여건을 조망하고 향후의 정책방향을 정리하였다. 그동안 수요가 많았음에도 이런 연구가 이루어지지 않았던 것은 그 만큼 연구가 어렵다는 것을 의미한다. 본 연구는 본격적인 첫 시도라는
점에서 높이 평가받아야 하나, 동시에 그 한계도 많을 것으로 생각된다. 앞으로 본 연구를 바탕으로 정부의 역할에 대한 한 차원 높은 논의가 전개되기를 기대한다. 또 본고를 집필한 고영선 박사와 본고의 편집과 정에서 노고를 아끼지 않은 유영미 행정원에게 감사를 드린다.
2008년 11월
한국개발연구원 원장
현정택
목
발간사
차
요 약 ·································································································· 1 제1장 서 론 ···················································································· 5 제2장 정부의 역할에 대한 인식의 변화 ···· ···· ···· ··· ···· ···· ··· ···· ···· ··· · 10
제1절 사유재산권의 보호 ·· ··· ··· ··· ··· ··· ··· ·· ··· ··· ··· ··· ··· ··· ·· ··· ··· ··· ··· ··· ··· 11 제2절 시장실패의 교정 ··· ·· ··· ·· ··· ·· ··· ·· ··· ·· ··· ·· ··· ·· ··· ·· ··· ·· ··· ·· ··· ·· ··· ·· ··· 12 1. 시장실패의 이유 ·································································· 12 2. 정부의 직접적 개입이 갖는 한계 · · · · ·· · · · · · · · · · · · ·· · · · · · · · · · · · · ·· · · · · · · · 21 3. 민간을 통한 공공서비스의 공급 · ·· ·· ·· ·· ·· ·· ·· ·· ·· ·· · ·· ·· ·· ·· ·· ·· ·· ·· ·· ·· 24 4. 규제개혁 · ··· ··· ··· ··· ·· ··· ··· ··· ·· ··· ··· ··· ··· ·· ··· ··· ··· ··· ·· ··· ··· ··· ·· ··· ··· ··· ··· 30


Full Text
Title 한국경제의 성장과 정부의 역할(Korea’s economic growth and government’s role: Past, present and future)
Similar Titles
Sub Title

과거, 현재, 미래

Material Type Reports
Author(Korean)

고영선

Publisher

서울:한국개발연구원

Date 2008
Pages 461
Subject Country South Korea(Asia and Pacific)
Language Korean
File Type Documents
Original Format pdf
Subject Economy < General
Holding 한국개발원; KDI 국제정책대학원

Abstract

This study comprehensively reviews existing studies on the economic roles of government and suggests ways to improve Korea’s current policies and systems and proposes specific policy tasks.
Traditional economic roles of the government can be categorized into property rights protection, market failures correction, merit goods provision, income and wealth redistribution, and macro-economic stabilization. Countries are now trying to reduce government interventions, strengthen the private sector initiative, and help market systems operate better by enhancing the predictability of public policy-making in each of the fields. Many of the state-owned enterprises established with the purpose of correcting market failures are being privatized. Regulations in the goods, financial and labor markets are being lifted. The competition principle is increasingly gaining voice even in the area of redistributive policy. Macroeconomic authorities are employing more market-friendly measures such as inflation targeting, mid-term fiscal management, and freely floating exchange rate systems. These transformations, however, do not automatically represent the general shrinkage of governmental roles. The role of government is actually expanding in those areas experiencing market failures. The same trend can be seen in Welfare states.
Since the 1960s, Korea has relied upon various state-driven strategies for rapid economic growth. By concentrating state support on sectors deemed strategically important such as export and heavy chemical industries, Korea repressed financial markets, restrained imports, and secured industrial monopolies. Although these policies certainly brought about certain positive results, they also created serious problems such as overinvestment in the heavy chemical sector, high levels of economic concentration, unstable prices, and brutally suppressed labor campaigns. Risk-sharing schemes were set up between the government and private sector, and poor management practices spread across corporate and financial sectors, which eventually combined to lead to the economic crisis in 1997. Korea’s state-driven growth era created, above all, a wave of unrealistic and excessive confidence in the ability of government, which made it painfully difficult to embed sound market disciplines. In a sense, the 1997 crisis helped resolve some of the problems. Many of them, however, still remain.
The heavy chemical industry support policies, among other things, have been highly contested. Some argue for them from the perspective of dynamic comparative advantage. The fact that other East Asian countries achieved higher economic growth than Korea without resorting to similar interventions, however, weakens this argument. The policies’ success may be attributed to their corrective effects of the market failures that resulted from the state-initiated export drives.