This study seeks to predict the future demand for labor, devise its countermeasures, and examine and identify measures for job security based upon the employment status and problems found in the rapid economic growth before the 1980s.
Korea’s economic growth was remarkable after the country released and implemented its ‘Five-Year Economic Plan.’ Along with the rapid growth, urban areas faced problems regarding poor working conditions, surplus of labor and even shortage of skilled manpower in some parts. In general, Korea’s labor force begins their economic activity at the age of 14. The labor force from 1963 to 1979 went through the following changes: the number of labor population in 1963 was 15,085,000 which increased to 24,678,000 by 1979. During the same period, the population percentage of economic activity in 1963, which was 55.3%, increased by 2.3% in 1979. The ratio of male workers decreased from 76.4% to 74.1% while the percentage of female workers greatly increased from 36.3% to 37.9%. The remarkable development of the Korean economy is first and foremost, based on its labor force. Industries facing a shortage of workers should turn to increasing the employment of female workers, thus recognizing the importance of the labor force and attain a smooth supply and demand of manpower.
Korea’s unemployment rate, 8.2% in 1963, fell to 3.8% in 1977 and 3.2% in 1978. The unemployment rate should further be alleviated through employment in the market. Studies show that Japan and Western countries even marking an unemployment rate of below 1%. In comparison to Japan’s unemployment rate of 2% and USA’s 4%, Korea’s rate is relatively higher. However, considering the high rate of underemployment moving within the market, the actual rate of unemployment in Korea may be regarded to be around 3%.
Underemployment however, will in no way work as a positive factor for the development of the Korean economy. Korea has set up a job security system in an effort to attain employment stability by being able to provide appropriate jobs to workers and to develop the necessary workforce for industries. However, issues on employment and the labor will persist as long as the economic development goes on. As labor is going through a quantitative expansion, policy measures must be set to facilitate the labor-intensive expansion of industries, while more effort should be exerted in alleviating the potential number of unemployed people including those possible and available to work. At the same time, long-term based policies must also accommodate job security through various means including vocational training and similar measures.
1980년대 고용전망과 장단기 직업안정계획(Study of the employment outlook of the 1980s and short/long-term plans on job security)
|Subject Country||South Korea(Asia and Pacific)|
|Subject||Social Development < Employment|
|Holding||KDI; KDI School|