Land reform, which became widespread all over the world after World War II, lost steam rapidly after the 1970s. Since the 21st century began, land reform forgotten for a generation has received attention again, because land reform has been recognized as an important policy tool to solve poverty. This paper examines how land reform has made impacts on both economy and society in a country based on Korea’s experience. It is highly expected that Korea’s experience will provide developing countries and international organizations, which have renewed interest in land reform, with a lot of implications.
Korea’s land reform was promoted as part of the U.S.’s anticommunism strategy for the occupying countries after World War II. In order to improve agricultural production and farm household economy under the circumstances where tenant-farming households accounted for 86 percent of the total farm households and tenant farming land ran to 64 percent of the total farmland at that time of liberation in 1945, it is certainly required to convert landlord oriented land ownership into independent farmer oriented land ownership. The 1st land reform was implemented at the instigation of the U.S. Military Government, whereas the 2nd land reform was carried out according to democratic procedure at the instigation of Korean government.
This paper is composed of 4 sections. After short introduction, section 2 deals with background and development process of Korea's land reform. In the development process of land reform, the legislation and enforcement process of the Land Reform Act are covered. In section 3, the results of land reform are examined from both economic and social perspectives. From an economic perspective, food production, income distribution, industrialization, human capital development are examined while abolition of the landlord system and creation of independent farmers, farmer’s standard of living are investigated from a social perspective. In section 4, the policy implications for developing countries are mentioned from Korea’s experiences.
한국의 농지개혁과 개도국에 주는 시사점(Land Reform in Korea and Its Implications)
|Series Title; No||개발정책과 국제협력|
|Subject Country||South Korea(Asia and Pacific)|
|Subject||Territorial Development < National Land Development|
|Holding||KDI; KDI School|