This study seeks to examine the labor force necessary for the development of the different industries for the Fourth Stage of the Five-Year Economic Plan and employment issues; and thereby develop measures for achieving sustainable employment conditions.
During the Fourth Stage of the Five-Year Economic Plan, employment is expected to increase by an annual average of 3.3%, creating about 14.5 million new opportunities for employment. In particular, the agriculture, forestry, fishery industries are forecasted to maintain a level of 40.5%, the mining and manufacturing industries of 24.1%, social overhead capital and other service industries of 35.4%. During the same period, the country’s population above 14 years old is forecasted to increase by an annual average rate of 2.95% while jobs are seen to increase by an annual average rate of 3.3%, implying a decrease in the unemployment rate. Focus should be set not on merely reducing the unemployment rate, but on spreading the positive impact of the different industries through improving employment conditions and creating new jobs.
Full employment must be attained in order for the Five-Year Economic Plan to reap its fruits of success. In particular, an estimated number of 2.26 million science and technical personnel is necessary for the industries and the heavy and chemical sector, which takes up about 15.65% of the total number of science-related working population. The necessary manpower is seen to make a gradual increase throughout 1969, 1975 and until 1981. As a result, some industries may be having an excessive supply or going through excessive or undersupply of science and technical workers. The technical areas, for example, are expected to have an excessive supply of labor until 1979 and then an undersupply in the 1980s. The functional area, on the other hand, is seen to have a persistent undersupply of labor, which is expected to reach 1.2 million people in 1981.
The undersupply of labor of science and technical workers is expected at about 510 thousand people during the implementation of the economic plan, based on the assumption that the all the trained personnel at present are employed at their relevant fields. In reality, predictions on employment will see some changes.
Training schemes are definitely necessary to resolve the shortage of science-related personnel, but even more necessary is the continuous management of the working population and employment conditions in order to prevent the workers’ brain-drain to non-technical areas.
To attain this, countermeasures must be devised from various perspectives, including: elimination of the humanities and social science-driven values; reform of the personnel administrative policies of companies; development of wage policies of workers; improvement of production conditions and re-education; attraction of foreign science personnel; adjustment of the retiring age; provision of scholarship assistance on vocational/technical high schools and development of vocational training institutions; systematic reorganization of science and technological certifications; research of the movement of labor by industries or occupational cluster for the sustainable balance of supply and demand of labor; and compilation of the country’s different jobs and publishing a dictionary of occupational titles.
장기고용 및 기술인력계획(Study of the plans for long-term employment and development of technical personnel)
|Subject Country||South Korea(Asia and Pacific)|
|Subject||Social Development < Employment|
|Holding||KDI; KDI School|