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재정지출의 생산성 제고를 위한 연구(Enhancing the efficiency and equitableness of public expenditure)

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Frame of Image 때 이러한 제반 과제는 쉽지 않음 을 알 수 있다. 전후 대부분의 선진국들은 복지지출의 꾸준한 증대와 이 로 인한 재정규모 및 정부부채의 증대를 경험하였다. 이는 국민경제에 부담을 주었을 뿐 아니라 재정운영의 탄력성을 줄임으로써 재정이 제 기능을 발휘하기 어렵게 만들었다. 즉, 높은 정부부채는 거시경제의 안 정성을 저해하고 정부의 이자부담을 증대시켰으며, 과도한 조세부담은 근로의욕과 투자유인을 낮추었고, 경직적인 복지지출에 치우친 재정구 조는 국가적 우선순위에 입각한 신축적인 재원배분을 불가능하게 하였 다. 이러한 문제점을 인식한 많은 선진국들은 1990년대에 접어들면서 재정건전성 강화 및 국민부담 경감을 위한 과감한 제도개혁에 나서게 되었다. 그러나 복잡한 정치⋅경제⋅사회⋅문화적 배경하에 형성되어 온 재정지출 및 수입구조를 하루아침에 바꾸기는 어렵기 때문에 개혁의 성과는 가시적으로 나타나지 않고 있다. 이러한 상황이 발생하기 전에 우리는 현 시점에서 보다 선제적으로 중장기 재정운영전략을 수립하고 재정지출구조를 개선해나갈 필요가 있다. 이런 필요성에서 정부는 최근 재정개혁 4대 과제(국가재정운용계
획 수립, 총액배분자율편성 예산제도 시행, 재정사업 성과관리제도 구 축, 디지털예산회계제도 도입)를 선정하여 추진하고 있다. 이 가운데 특 히 국가재정운용계획은 중기재정관리의 목표와 재원배분방향을 제시하 는 기본 틀로 작용할 전망이다. 본 연구는 이러한 제도개혁을 뒷받침하 기 위해 분야 간 재원배분의 현황을 살펴보고 향후 재원배분이 어떻게 바뀌는 것이 바람직한지 논의하고자 하는 목적에서 추진되었다. 또 각 부문별로 재정지출의 효율성과 형평성을 제고하기 위한 방안을 제시하 고자 하였다. 本書는 모두 10개의 장으로 구성되어 있다. 제1장은 이후 9개 장의 내용을 요약하는 총괄논문이다. 제2장은 거시적인 관점에서 우리나라의 재정규모와 재원배분의 현황을 분석하고 향후 재원배분의 개선방향을 제시하고 있다. 이어서 제3장에서 제9장까지는 부문별로 정책방향과 투 자우선순위를 논의하고 있다. 본서의 논의에 포함된 부문은 사회복지, 교육, 노동, 농업, SOC, R&D, 지방재정이다. 마지막으로 제10장은 재정 정책의 경기조절기능을 실증적으로 분석한 결과를 보여준다. 각 장의 집필은 本院의 고영선, 문형표, 우천식, 유경준, 박현, 서중해, 노기성, 허 석균 박사 및 한양대학교의 이영 교수와 인천대학교의 이명헌 교수가 담당하였으며, 편집은 고영선 박사가 담당하였다. 본서는 향후 재정운영의 방향을 설정하는 데 중요한 참고자료로 사 용될 수 있을 것이다. 그러나 이것만으로 연구가 완결된 것은 아니다. 본서에 포함되지 않은 다른 여러 분야에 대해 동일한 연구가 진행되어 야 하며, 본서에 포함된 분야에 대해서도 환경변화에 따라 보다 심도 있 는 연구가 진행되어야 한다. 본서는 이러한 후속연구의 출발점이 될 것 으로 기대된다.
2004년 12월
한국개발연구원 원장
김중수
목
발간사
차
요 약···········································


Full Text
Title 재정지출의 생산성 제고를 위한 연구(Enhancing the efficiency and equitableness of public expenditure)
Similar Titles
Material Type Reports
Author(Korean)

고영선 편

Publisher

[서울] : 한국개발연구원

Date 2004
Series Title; No 정책연구시리즈
Pages 426
Subject Country South Korea(Asia and Pacific)
Language Korean
File Type Documents
Original Format pdf
Subject Economy < Financial Policy
Holding KDI; KDI School
License

Abstract

Various economic changes occurring worldwide, such as the declining potential growth rate, rapid aging of populations, and rise of the private sector as a dominant economic segment, are driving the need for the adoption of new financial management strategies. Government expenditure is expected to increase in the medium to long term, and fiscal sustainability may be compromised, as tax revenue growth slows and welfare spending increases dramatically. To mitigate the impact of this financial instability, it is necessary to prevent the growth of public expenditure and increase the efficiency of government spending. Ensuring the flexible distribution of financial resources under diverse circumstances is also required. In other words, to ensure the efficient use of limited resources, we must channel more resources into highly requested projects while reducing spending on tasks that are no longer in high demand.

In 2004, the government addressed the issue of the efficiency of resource use by introducing the National Fiscal Management Plan (NFMP) , which proposed plans for medium-term fiscal activities and financial resource allocation. This report aims to examine the current status of fiscal allocation in different sectors, discuss how the NFMP can improve the distribution of financial resources, and propose plans with the aim of increasing the effectiveness and efficiency of government expenditure in different industries.

Chapter 1 outlines the key arguments of this report, while Chapter 2 discusses the current status of resource distribution in various sectors and suggests possible improvements. Government expenditure in Korea hovers around the average of other countries, including developing nations. The Korean government spends a significant portion of its tax revenue on projects that aim to stimulate the economy and relatively little on social welfare, which is also around the average of other states. As the economies of Korea and countries around the world remain unstable, priority should be given to investment in basic public services rather than economic development plans. Another crucial means of improving resource distribution is to establish a good performance management system and medium-term fiscal management system. Chapter 3 examines welfare budgets. Establishing a firm basis for future welfare policies requires plans for the balanced development of the welfare system based on a specific set of priorities, as well as qualitative improvement of policy effectiveness and efficiency rather than mere budget increases.

Chapter 4 delves into the education budget. There is a need to increase federal spending on education at various levels, including secondary, preschool, and lifelong education. Increasing the total budget for primary and secondary education should involve prompt actions by the regional governments, keeping in mind that, in terms of the education budget, efficiency should be given more emphasis than scale. The obligation and authority to intervene in education at such levels should be distributed to different constituents, such as local governments, cities, provincial offices of education, and regional school units. Meanwhile, a greater portion of spending on post-secondary education should go toward indirect assistance for students, researchers, and educational teams, while providing a smaller portion as direct assistance for universities. The coordination of post-secondary education investment should also undergo structural reform with a view to improving overall efficiency.

Chapter 5 provides a look into spending that aims to reduce unemployment. Such expenditures should be managed with the overall welfare budget in mind. The fact that the final benefactors of unemployment reduction are private enterprises should be taken into account when assigning priorities in inducing employment in the private sector. Childcare subsidies should also be given more weight in order to increase the number of women in the workforce. Meanwhile, long-term investments are preferable to short-term projects as a means of tackling the structural roots of unemployment and promoting youth employment.

Chapter 6 reviews the budget for agriculture. As in many other OECD countries, direct payments in each area is the most effective form of agrarian welfare service in Korea. There is no significant difference in effectiveness between direct payments, deficiency payments, and price floors, which is a phenomenon not often seen in OECD countries. If direct payments for farmers induce the same effects as providing income support for low-income farms, it would not only improve the distribution of income across neighboring farms but also achieve horizontal equity across low-income families in rural areas. Analyzing, in detail, how much recipient farms should receive and devising plans to increase the amount of financial aid is crucial to the design of an ideal direct payment system.

Chapter 7 discusses the budget for social overhead capital (SOC). An international comparison shows that Korea’s road network coverage is 84 percent that of the international average, while its railroad network coverage stands at 66 percent. It is predicted that it would be beneficial for Korea to reduce its investments in roads and airports, maintain its current level of investment in railroads, and increase its investment in ports.

Chapter 8 looks at the research and development (R&D) budget. The government has made significant investments in national R&D and is likely to continue doing so in the future. It could, however, increase its investment efficiency by establishing an institutional framework for improving research management and operation, finding links and practical applications across research subjects, and creating a system for national innovation to maximize the potential of science and technology.

Chapter 9 provides a look into the budget for regional financial assistance. According to an empirical analysis of the determinants of the regional financing scale, the Korean government’s provision of regional financial aid is overperforming in terms of income, territory, and population. Increasing regional assistance will help satisfy the financial demands that have arisen during the recent period of stable national growth and relocation of governmental functions to regional areas. However, it is crucial that efforts be made to reinforce the government’s commitment to and the efficiency of regional assistance spending.

Chapter 10 conducts an empirical analysis of the stabilizing effects of fiscal policies. Although the results dispute some of the widely accepted Keynesian beliefs, they should be subjected to critical examination. More empirical studies are required in order to prove the validity of fiscal policies.

Efforts to ensure the priorities of budget expenditure across all domains should continue in the future. Each project should be designed with a clear policy objective and well-organized strategy in order to facilitate the prioritization process, and a series of analyses and assessments of each project should be performed regularly. Businesses cannot achieve their goals based on budget increases alone. Therefore, the tasks of improving the policy environment and establishing a firm performance management system should be completed before addressing the issue of assigning budgets.