This study aims to review and appraise the policy history of the Seoul, reestablishing policy goals, and remarking on the urgent need to constructing new cities.
The influx of population into cities began in the mid-1970s, and has mostly concentrated in Seoul. The concentration of population has given rise to the development of municipal policies such as the development of restricted areas, the establishment of industrial and education facilities subject to land use regulations, the development of the Gangnam area, and construction of a subway network. In the 1980s, efforts to relocate the population of Seoul Capital Area (SCA) were made by carrying out capital zone policies and land use regulations, including regulations on location of industrial, educational, and public facilities and large buildings that contribute to the concentration of population.
However, these policies have not been implemented consistently, and even policies that were executed consistently resulted in considerable social cost. Without considering the rationale behind the relocation of the population of SCA, measures to pursue economic growth and the improvement of municipal functions were carried out irresponsibly and failed to reduce overpopulation in Seoul. Seoul, burdened with overpopulation and the elimination of green areas, development restriction areas were designated and available land was reduced, resulting in increased land prices and long commutes for citizens.
To solve the problems in Seoul, policy objectives should be reestablished. Particularly the problems of population concentration causes many internal problems such as traffic congestion, housing shortages, higher housing prices, and environmental pollution should be resolved. On the other hand, there are external issues such as the sense of alienation and conflicts caused from economic gap between areas.
In terms of future plans for national land development, Seoul needs to be strengthened and policies should focus on solving social problems associated with overpopulation, rather than on trying to diffuse population and industrial concentration in Seoul. So far, relocation policies have worsened overpopulation. Instead of regulations on location, pollution should be controlled by assessing and limiting individual sources of contamination. In addition, by expanding and encouraging internationalization, including the establishment of large business, sale and entertainment facilities, international convention centers, and accommodation facilities, doing business for the small and medium sized companies and new start-ups in areas should facilitated. Additionally, laws on location of industry and establishment of industrial infrastructure should be revised.
After the construction of new cities in Bundang and Ilsan, discussion on other new cities in SCA will commence. However, given that Korea has experienced problems while implementing new city projects—overemployment of the construction industry, acceleration of wage increase, lack of building materials, poor construction quality, and insufficient transportation networks—building another new city is not desirable at this time. Rather, through increased investment in urban service facilities and localization of authority, policies should to be established to explore the autonomous growth potential of rural districts.
수도권 정책방향의 재정립(Reestablishment of policy directions for Seoul capital area)
|Series Title; No||정책포럼 / 제45호(9415)|
|Subject Country||South Korea(Asia and Pacific)|
|Subject||Territorial Development < National Land Development|
|Holding||KDI; KDI School|