The purpose of this study is to examine the changes of the air pollution prevention system in Korea and the basic framework of the current system, and offer directions for improvement.
One of the serious problems arising from industrialization over the past thirty years is pollution and destruction of the environment. Since the 1990s, problems resulting from destruction of the environment are becoming public concerns and, as a result, actions by the government and social movements from citizens are beginning to address these issues.
The basic policy implements the regulation of point-source pollution through the “discharge facility authorization” system and the “excessive discharge charging” system. The discharge facility authorization system authorizes the establishment and operation of facilities for which the government mandates certain requirements concerning the discharging of pollutants, maintaining release of pollution at a level at or under a permitted limit. A business intending to establish a facility that discharges pollutants within a specific area is obligated to establish a pollution prevention facility to maintain that the production of pollution is within permissible limits. The business is also obligated to comply with the legally specified permissible discharge criteria.
The discharge charging system imposes penalty fees for pollutant discharge in excess of the permissible limit. Since the Korean discharge charging system is applicable to pollutants in excess of the permissible limit, it may be considered an excessive discharge charging system, is different from an “effluent charge” system or a “Pigouvian tax” system.
In terms of economic efficiency, general problems related to quantity regulation methods arise in the Korean discharge facility authorization system. The most significant reduction of economic efficiency under the current system is that the scale and quantity of discharge is determined regardless of whether individual pollutant discharging companies actually reduce pollution. In order to increase economic efficiency, rather than maintaining the drain concentration of all sources of pollution at the same level, the marginal cost of treating pollutants should be maintained at the same level. Another problem of the current system is that there are almost no incentives for individual discharging companies to make new technical developments for pollution reduction.
Therefore, in order to make improvements on the system, economic incentives that may develop new technologies or promote introduction of new pollution reduction apparatuses or equipment should be provided. In addition, the minimum standards required to be considered in adopting policy alternatives for pollution reduction should include administrative convenience, simplicity of the system, and income distribution and fundraising.
공해방지제도의 기본구조와 개선방안(Basic structure of pollution prevention system and methods for improvements)
|Series Title; No||정책연구시리즈 / 91-31|
|Subject Country||South Korea(Asia and Pacific)|
|Subject||Territorial Development < Environment|
|Holding||KDI; KDI School|