This study aims to review the urban planning of the fifth Five-Year Socio-Economic Development Plan and suggests measures for improvement.
The purposes of urban planning are fivefold: the discouragement of spatial and functional bipolar of land in accordance with the concentration of the population and industry in Seoul and Busan, establishment of the land space management system, creation of a basis for local city development, qualitative development of the urban environment, and reform of the urban development and administrative and financial systems. These purposes focus on national spatial structure reform, rather than the urban environment and national welfare promotion. However, urban planning should emphasize the city itself, the living environment, and national welfare rather than land development.
As the majority of Koreans are likely to live in cities, urban problems will be related directly to national welfare. In this respect, the purposes of urban planning should be consistent with the basic goals of the fifth Five-Year Plan by realizing social stability through the promotion of urban development, improvement of urban life and urban environmental facilities, increasing the capacity to provide diverse urban services, living condition-oriented urban development, urban development for efficiency improvement, and development of the administrative and financial system.
Urban development can be pursued in terms of demand and supply. Korea has focused mostly on regulating demand increase and neglected the expansion of the capacity of facilities and supplies in accordance with the increase in urban demand, while regulating population and industrial concentration in cities and accommodating urban demands with existing urban facilities. In doing so, the Korean government has focused on the establishment of a systematic spatial land management system and has encouraged the population to settle in rural areas. It has also encouraged the establishment of a basis for urban growth, qualitative improvement of the urban living environment, and the reform of the administrative and financial system as its major policy goals. However, it seems that these measures stress cities’ external functional relationships while overlooking internal problems and overly focus on spatial population dispersion to large cities and local cities to stress the importance of population distribution within metropolitan areas.
The measures for the government’s urban planning suggested above are reasonable, but it is more necessary for the government to revise its plan based on the following suggestions: Above all, urban facilities related to basic needs, culture, and welfare such as libraries and senior welfare facilities, leisure and entertainment facilities (such as parks), should be expanded. Also, facilities in cities of various sizes should be developed. Finally, a system for the efficient and widespread use of living environment facilities should be established for the efficient policy in urban development.
5차계획 작성을 위한 도시화문제 연구(A study of urbanization for the formulation of the fifth five-year socio-economic development plan)
도시부문계획의 개선방향과 주요문제점(Suggestions for the improvement for urban planning and major problems)
|Series Title; No||연구보고서 / 제81-06권|
|Subject Country||South Korea(Asia and Pacific)|
|Subject||Territorial Development < National Land Development|
|Holding||KDI; KDI School|