This study focuses on the introduction of Green GNP, post-environmental impact assessments, and suggests ways to improve environmental impact assessment.
Sustainable Development (SD) includes integrated systems for developing the economy and protecting environment, and also examines social and economic environment to not only protect natural environment but deal with environmental effects. In other words, SD emphasizes that environmental issues should be addressed comprehensively. Environmental impact assessment is an example: Green GNP which is to be introduced is expected to help acquire information and expertise that can expand the scope of environmental impact assessments. A significant gap between traditional GNP and Green GNP is a warning that the country is no longer approaching sustainable growth through economic activity. By conducting environmental impact assessments, management of sustainable development at the national level is possible.
OECD member countries have already been establishing integrated information systems for the economy and environment in order to estimate Green GNP. However, Korea is just beginning to build its own system. Korea needs to pursue forward-oriented measures within an organized framework of environmental and economic integration, which can be a fundamental countermeasure against pressures of trade regulations related to environment, likely to be created by the Uruguay Round.
In measuring economic growth based on SNA, GNP or GDP indices are considered crucially important. However, the value of environmental assets used for economic activities such as soil, water, animals and plants and air cannot be calculated. As a result, there is a chance GNP and GDP grow while environmental pollution worsens. Therefore, new approaches need to be taken for Green GNP.
These approaches include a calculation method, an environmental criteria approach method, and a satellite account approach method. Economically advanced countries including Canada, France, Germany, Japan, the Netherlands, and Norway are introducing programs to adopt Green GNP. Countries such as Norway, France, and the Netherlands are preparing for to make bigger environmental assets available just in case compared to other countries since it is not how much data is needed to define environmental assets. Korea needs to calculate Green GNP by gathering data about environmental assets, converting the assets into monetary value, and establishing information systems to integrate the economy and the environment, as well as establish and operate a committee to carry out Green GNP-related programs.
Environmental impact assessment is an important part of Green GNP. Assessment is used to introduce measures through evaluation and review of environmental impact before business plan to enact them. These assessments are mostly about determining factors affecting the environment, such as determining the characteristics, purposes, material required, and engineering of business planned or being carried out. Additionally, assessments predict the impact on the environment.
Since there is more to be considered and integrated, the following actions should be taken: Environmental impact assessments should be conducted separately by business developers and government agencies. Green GNP calculations should be led by government agencies. Programs should be reorganized to be aligned with Green GNP, and to increase interaction between Green GNP and environmental impact assessments. Support centers for environmental impact assessments need to be established. The government, business developers and the private sector's increased commitment to environmental conservation should help environmental impact assessments, with the private sector's participation improving such assessments. Only then could Green GNP be introduced as planned.
GREEN GNP 제도의 도입에 따른 환경영향평가제도 개선방안(Methods to improve environmental impact assessment as green GNP Is to be introduced)
서울 : 한국개발연구원
|Series Title; No||정책연구시리즈 / 94-18|
|Subject Country||South Korea(Asia and Pacific)|
|Subject||Territorial Development < Environment|
|Holding||KDI; KDI School|