This analyzes the factors behind female participation in economic activities and identifies obstacles for women in joining economic activities, as well as discusses measures towards improvement.
Regardless of country, the number of female participants in economic activities dramatically increases with the advent of industry, and the status of women’s economic activities diversifies. During years from 1960 to 1970, there was growth in female employment, as women account for 41.3 percent of employment as of November 1983. However, the structure of female employment has yet to be advanced, and female workers are subject to discrimination. Given that Korea’s stable economic growth hinges upon the efficient use of human capital, women’s economic activities are very significant. This study analyzes determining factors of female employment from the labor-economic perspectives: that the increased participation of women in economic activities has played a significant part in labor supply.
First, the individual analysis revealed that a negative effect over different income, among other personal variables, was strong. Demand indices for female labor were found to be the most powerful explanatory variable. Also, if a woman has a child or children, and if so the age of her children has a varying impact on a married women’s economic activities. These three independent variables make clear the factors behind women’s participation in economic activities, and their relevance to women’s economic activities was found to be identical to the research results from other countries. This suggests the universal validity of this study.
However, whether a woman has children aged 6 or younger fails to show an empirical effect in group analysis, even though it was expected as explanatory. In the case of education, it was unreasonable to consider it a grouping variable, but individual analysis revealed negative correlations between the ratio of women participating in economic activities and their education level, which is opposite to what was found in foreign researches.
Taking into consideration the above findings, we concluded that the higher women’s education level is, the less they participate in the labor market, except for female college graduates. It is assumed that education up to the high school level is rarely helpful in preparing women to acquire a job.
As for the policy implications of the study results, the government needs to increase demand for female workers since there is an abundance of potential female labor. In order for women to supply labor without any friction, more daycare facilities are needed. In addition, education programs need to be diversified so as to give vocational training to women. Moreover, the government should provide information on the labor market such as unemployment rate, job postings, and type of available jobs.
한국여성의 경제활동참가요인 분석(Analysis of factors behind women’s participation in economic activities)
서울 : 한국개발연구원
|Series Title; No||정책연구시리즈 / 84-05|
|Subject Country||South Korea(Asia and Pacific)|
|Subject||Social Development < Gender|
|Holding||KDI; KDI School|