National economies are becoming more knowledge-based?economies where productivity and growth have become more dependent on knowledge. However, nations, organizations, and individuals did not intentionally design the “knowledge era,” they were?knowingly or unknowingly?pushed into it. India and the People’s Republic of China are moving to where knowledge has become the strategic national and organizational resource. The Asian economic landscape will continue to be pushed also by Japan and by smaller, but bright, economic performers such as Malaysia, Singapore, Republic of Korea, and Taipei,China. This publication aims (i) to examine the assumptions behind and ingredients of a knowledge-based economy and society and (ii) to survey how Asian governments have been planning to move their economies and societies to be more knowledge-based.