This research aims to examine the progress of the Small-scale Water Supply System Expansion Project - a project initiated with the IBRD Saemaeul Loan, in terms of its direct and direct impact, thus identifying areas that still need improvement.
At the end of 1977, a total number of 15,677 water supply systems have been established which led to 5,191 people receiving the benefit of safe water in the rural areas, making up about 47% of the population. With the Saemaeul Loan granted by IBRD, 4,073 small-scale water supply systems have been installed which gave the benefit of clean and safe water to about 150,000 people.
A field survey on 28 towns conducted two times revealed that 66.5% of the families in the towns with the new water supply system have received quality water, which makes up 70.8% of the benefiting group. The average number of water facilities installed in each household reached 1.1, meaning each house having at least one hydrant. Of the total installations, 95% was for household use while the rest of the percentage was for public use, such as in barbershops or restaurants.
Areas that are charged with monthly water bills are limited to communities using non-pressurized gravity or pumping systems, facilities which both use electricity. Only one community was charged according to the water gauge while the remaining communites used the quota system for water usage. However, not one community using the non-pressured gravity system was charged with monthly water fees. The only charge collected was for labor or other maintenance expenses in case of breakdowns. There were two communities that hired full-time managers as their size was relatively larger, while systems in the rest of the communities were managed by the village head, or the Saemaeul leader, or the woman representative. The Korean Federation of Community Credit Cooperatives holds plans to increase the number of systems.
The weakest point regarding the water supply system is that its smooth use is often difficult during the winter due to the system’s frequent freezing and breakdowns. In the rural areas, the community members work to repair the supply system themselves as there are not enough technicians or equipment for its management. As a result, the possibility of breakdowns increases while the life span of the machinery is shortened. In addition, most of the water supply systems have been designed to meet the demand of the initial number of customers. This sheds light on another problem, as the current facilities are not capable of handling the increased demand of water with new customers.
The direct effects of establishing small-scale water supply systems are increased safe water, reduced time and efforts of the rural community in obtaining water for their use, and the prevention of waterborne epidemics. As for the indirect effects, the kitchen and sewerage systems are improved, while a clearer vision has been created for fire protection and health.
The establishment of the water supply system, a part of the Saemaeul Movement, has been initiated and carried out around the local communities. There is, however, a need for more focus on areas with higher population densities. The expansion of cultural facilities according to population density will have to build its blueprints by looking ahead, 10 - 15 years in the future. As the construction period will take longer than the period supported by IBRD assistance, construction will have to be completed without delays. Lastly, appropriating the budget for construction will also have to be done in advance.
- IBRD 새마을 차관(Evaluation study of the small-scale water supply system expansion project under the IBRD Saemaeul loan)
- 문팔룡; 류병서
IBRD 새마을 차관(Evaluation study of the small-scale water supply system expansion project under the IBRD Saemaeul loan)
[서울] : 한국농촌경제연구원
|Series Title; No||산업별결과보고서|
|Subject Country||South Korea(Asia and Pacific)|
|Subject||Economy < Financial Policy
Territorial Development < National Land Development