Korea has experience significant changes with growing concentration of population in the cities, the appearance of megalopolis and increasing environmental considerations in the national physical planning during last 30 years. The process of decentralization also changes the functions and roles of the central and local governments.
The National Planning System in Korea was drawn up in the early 1960s when the economic development plan was launched for the first time. Since then, there has been no major amendments although the planning environment has changes over time. Therefore, it has been pointed out that the present planning system is not in accordance with the changing new planning environment and hence, new planning system must be established.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the national physical planning systems existing in other countries and to find their relevance for application to the national physical planning system in Korea.
This study first analyzed the present situations and problems of the national physical planning system in Korea. Based on this result, the national physical planning systems of foreign countries sere investigated. The analysis includes the backgrounds of the national physical planning, characteristics, spatial planning system, formulation system, implementation, evaluation and feed-back process. The foreign case studies included in the analysis are France, Germany and Netherlands in Europe which are known to have the characteristics of decentralization and balanced development and Japan which has a similar system to Korea.
Some of the problems found in the national physical planning system of Korea are: vagueness of national physical planning purpose, lack of clearly defined functions and roles of different levels of plans, complex planning system, lack of supporting measures to implement plans, absence of control and monitoring, and the lack of implementation.
The major features found in the analysis of the national planning systems of the foreign countries, which are very useful and can be applied to the national physical planning system in Korea are as follows. First, the function of national physical planning is clearly defined. Second, the characteristics of national physical planning is indicative, guiding, and information-providing rather than investment oriented. Third, the national physical plan is strongly supported by the sectoral and low level plans which can facilitate the implementation of the national plan, Fourth, the spatial planning system is well established so that the consistency can be secured in the central, regional, and local development plans and land use plans. Fifth, the functional independence of lower level governments is very well respected and their participation is insured in the formulation process of the higher level of plans. Sixth, where appropriate, the special administrative bodies are created and development funds are provided. Finally, the evaluation system such as annual reporting to the parliament is also mandated in some European countries and the planning period is very flexible which is different from Korea. the national physical planning system in Japan which was a model practiced in Korea now known to be very ineffective.
- 국토계획제도 국제비교 연구(A study on the national physical planning system of foreign countries)
- 윤양수; 이승복
국토계획제도 국제비교 연구(A study on the national physical planning system of foreign countries)
|Series Title; No||국토연 / 97-30|
|Subject Country||Japan(Asia and Pacific)
South Korea(Asia and Pacific)
|Subject||Territorial Development < National Land Development|