This report is a study on the history of the inauguration, the changes, key issues, accomplishments, and development directions within the last decade of the National Basic Living Security system.
As the problem of poverty had become a social issue after the Foreign Currency Crisis in 1998, citizens’ groups such as People’s Solidarity for Participatory Democracy (PSPD) has petitioned for legislation (through policy hearings) on the unemployment of low-income groups and living security plans. As a result, the National Basic Living Security Act was enacted in September 1999, with a goal of securing a minimum standard of living. In July of the following year, the enforcement decree was publically announced, to lay a foundation for the proliferation of a social security system that reflects the social philosophy that all people are entitled to a minimum standard of living.
The introduction of this system is significant in following aspects: insurance of a minimum level of living, which is the most rudimental and institutional conditions of a welfare state, provision of minimum payment for individuals who are unable to work, and, the insurance of the minimum cost of living for low-income groups. After the introduction of the National Basic Living Security system, special protection measures for vulnerable groups, laws, regulations and guidelines related to life security systems such as housing benefits systems, self-support systems, and medical benefits systems have been complimented. However, many issues related to decisions regarding beneficiary qualification, payment, financing and delivery systems, housing benefit systems, self-support projects, and medical benefit systems have been raised.
The National Basic Living Security system has shown outstanding success in life security and independence support. The role of this system is to expand the application of basic life security to all low-income groups, including working individuals and their families. Before the introduction of this system, support had been provided to 500,000 households. After the application of this system, 1.57 million households received benefits, and public officials in charge of social welfare were discharged to each eup (town), myeon (a subdivision of a district), and dong (administrative district). Although it is reported that the total rate of poverty was reduced in terms of life security, there is hardly any reduction when income is considered. Additionally, payment rates compared to the low-income population was only 44 percent, significantly high level than the average of 60 percent in the advanced countries.
Independence support is a system that support households in poverty and provide support to escape poverty after a certain period of time. However, it has been analyzed that it has negative influence on the actual independence and work of its beneficiaries. The number of elderly beneficiaries who are highly dependent on welfare is increasing, and the volume of long-term beneficiaries continues to grow.
It is optimal to operate the National Basic Living Security system within the scope of social security system. The status of this system influences the level of benefits and number of people who are unemployed, ill, disabled and elderly. Therefore, a comprehensive study on the supplementary development plans through public assistance systems is necessary. It is also necessary to study the relationship with the work incentive tax systems introduced to support the income and provide encouragement to work for low-income households more closely, and to develop them into more work-friendly systems.
- 국민기초생활보장제도 10년사(A decade of national basic living security system)
- 보건복지부; 한국보건사회연구원
국민기초생활보장제도 10년사(A decade of national basic living security system)
|Series Title; No||정책 / 2010-79|
|Subject Country||South Korea(Asia and Pacific)|
|Subject||Social Development < Health|