Korean society as a whole is responsible for taking care of children who are precious resources of the future. However, children have never received enough political attention and there has not been many policies designed for children. But there has been growing political interestson children due to the current low birth rate in Korea. The low birth rate phenomenon is expected to heavily influence the availability of workforce and social welfare system such as pension and annuity in the future. Despite the on-going debate in South Korea on whether child allowance will improve the birth rate, it is hard to empirically prove the relationship between the two factors. Importance of child allowance system can be viewed differently if it is observed from a perspective of total infrastructure establishment for child support or if it is understood as a type of cash wages. This research provides the grounds for promoting child allowance system based on the correlation among realization of child welfare, support on families for child support, and socio-demographic change. In addition, we analyzed the implications on adopting child allowance into South Korea in comparison to the child allowance systems of different countries, and suggested policy proposal for implementing child allowance system in South Korea.