In mid 1990s, populations of two major cities in Korea, Seoul and Busan, stopped to increase. Many People emigrated from the central cities to the surrounding area by expanding commuting distance to those central cities. Expanded urban areas have been mainly filled up with high-rise and high-density apartments to accommodate emigrating populations. Urban growth management is needed for spatial restructuring and scattered/concentrated urban development. Density control system should be also adopted and manged in regional, urban and district level in context of urban growth management. This study focuses on the alternatives of density planning and implementations for sustainable urban development.
In chapter 2, we will discuss the legitimacy of density control in urban growth management and define types of density and finally analyze the density level of newly developed apartment housing site in Seoul Capital Region. The density used in this study covers population density and building density. And also gross density in urban and built-up area and net density in each lot will be utilized. And building density will be studied through floor area ratios (FAR).
The building density(FAR) of over 1,000 apartment sites completed in these 5 years is compared with those of foreign advanced countries: Europe, U.S.A and Japan. We concluded that the housing density (280% as of the late 1990s in Seoul Capital Region) in Korea is much higher than that of those countries. In foreign countries, generally apartment houses are built below 5 stories. And also about the existing density condition and desirable density, we questionaried to urban researchers and planners. They agreed that the density nowadays in Korea is too high, and consumed that about 150%(FAR) is desirable.
In chapter 3, the existing density control and management system is reviewed in two aspects: comprehensive planning and density implementation tools.
Comprehensive plan about density allocation and management includes not only city-region plans but also urban general plans. City region plan is recommended to include density management strategies as important planning elements compared with Metro Plan 2000 of Metropolitan Boston. And through the review of urban general plan documents of Buchon-si and Anyang-si, more deliberated and meaningful efforts for density planning seemed to be needed.
About density implementation tools, FAR control under land use zoning and density control by Detailed District Plan (Zikudanneui-Geihoek) are reviewed. The FAR was reinforced by the amendment of the Urban Planning Law and the Zoning Ordinances of municipalities in the year of 2000. Through this amendment, the apartment building over 300% of FAR is unable institutionally, and more active and diverse use of density control in zoning is needed according to the city characteristics. Detailed District Plan is expected to play more important role in land use control, but by now it is not yet clarified to formulate density allocation process into residential block.
In chapter 4, several alternatives are proposed to solve density control and management problems in two aspects: comprehensive planning and density implementation tools. Comprehensive planning should include and give guidelines explicitly to the density allocation and management of related plans. Not only City-Region Plan but also Urban General Plan should include density strategies for each sub-region or sub-area. Zoning is the most prevalent one of density implementation tools, and FAR maximum in each zone is prescribed by the ordinances in municipalities. But problems to be solved are as follows; (The rest is omitted)
- 도시성장관리를 위한 개발밀도에 관한 연구(Density control and urban growth management system)
- 박재길; 김의식; 김상조; 문홍길
도시성장관리를 위한 개발밀도에 관한 연구(Density control and urban growth management system)
|Series Title; No||국토연 / 2001-20|
|Subject Country||South Korea(Asia and Pacific)|
|Subject||Territorial Development < National Land Development|