The consideration of quality of life has been regarded as important in urban planning. In this vein, there have emerged two controversial issues, urban sprawl and compact city, in the urban growth management arena while it is difficult to determine which of them is better. Overseas institutions have conducted various researches to measure the change in urban spatial structure for urban growth management; however, few considerations have been given to those studies so far in Korea.
Urban sprawl is commonly defined as the unplanned extension of a relatively low-density urban land with a pattern of leapfrog, commercial strip development. It has been causing environmental and social problems. Recently, a compact settlement structure has been suggested in urban growth management in order to deal with the haphazard urban development. Urban growth management is a rational program to control and accommodate the impacts of urban growth on a city, and for this, it is necessary to quantify an urban form in order to examine the compactness of a city.
The main objective of this study is to propose measurement methods of urban form – urban sprawl versus compactness. We have developed two quantitative methods; one is a statistical analysis that can be adopted at the macro level; and the other is a GIS-based spatial analysis for the micro level spatial approach. The statistical analysis includes five indices that are explored on urban form at the national scale: Gini’s concentration ratio, Theil index, Shannon’s entropy, Moran’s I, and mean of deviation distance. The GIS based spatial analysis method for measuring micro urban form uses four variables: density, continuity, mixed us, and centrality.
In this study, parcel data and architectural information are adopted for the micro scale analysis. To be specific, the KLIS(Korea Land Information System) and AIS(Architectural Information System) data are combined for the analysis. Using the combined dataset, urban population is distributed to each parcel. Then, the population density after the distribution, and the characteristics of land use are analysed. The results of the urban spatial structure measurement are utilized as a quantitative value. In a case study, the composited index is obtained by adding all the measured urban spatial structure. As each individual index sufficiently represents the characteristics of the urban spatial structure, it is more important to understand the characteristics of an urban structure based on the individual index than that of the composited index.
The results of the analysis on urban form are presented using a 3-dimensional model. The analytical methods proposed in this paper are expected to help urban planners to divide urban growth management policies.
- 도시성장관리를 위한 공간구조 측정방법에 관한 연구(Measurement of urban form in urban growth management)
- 임은선; 이종열; 김형진; 이희연
도시성장관리를 위한 공간구조 측정방법에 관한 연구(Measurement of urban form in urban growth management)
외연확산형과 압축형 도시측정을 중심으로(Urban sparawl and compactness)
|Series Title; No||국토연 / 2006-6|
|Subject Country||South Korea(Asia and Pacific)|
|Subject||Territorial Development < National Land Development|