Land uses in Korea have been controlled by zoning system since Japanese colonial period. Zoning system would have been a useful tool for accommodating the explosive growth of population and industries by rapid urbanization. However, the experts expressed concern about efficacy of zoning system as a future urban policy paradigm according to changes of circumstance, such as declination of population, globalization and climate changes. The purpose of this research is to examine the practices and problems of Korean development control and suggest a new system responsive to changing urban policy directions. For this, this study investigated foreign development controls and the problems of Korean’s. Then, this study discussed how to improve Korean development control.
It can be categorized into two types development control in global: discretionary system and regulatory system. The discretionary system, which is used in the UK, is a system in which practical examination and permission processes completely rely on the discretion of officials with professional knowledge (development controllers) while related plans only suggest basic directions. The regulatory system, which is used in the USA and Japan, is a system in which land uses are controlled by specific (F-Plan and B-Plan) rather than regulations are used for land use control.
Development controls described above consist of the following three tools: planning system, regulation system, and permission system. The zoning system based on regulation system relies on strong and diverse regulator standards for development control, while the system based on plans relies on diverse plans that carry strong legal binding force. In the discretionary system of the UK land uses are controlled by basic policies from plans and specific guidelines given during examination and permission processes.
In Korean development control system, the three systems (planning, regulation, examination and permission systems) have also formed complementary relations with each other. However, the planning system does not provide sufficient indicators for the regulation system, and the permission system does little in providing relevant political directions and standards. And the regulation system has limitations in giving clear standards for the examination and permission system because the regulations are so rigid and not responsive to the change of circumstances that they are revised frequently. Regarding permission system, important processes are perfunctory and unscientific, and moreover, it is difficult for developers to foresee the results because decisions related with approvals entirely rely on the discretion of committee members or officials. Therefore, Korean development control system looks as a zoning system based on regulations, but in fact is a system in which the three sub systems are loosely intertwined with each other.
In conclusion, the long term view is that land uses in Korea will be controlled by a system based on specific plans or a system that combine planning system and permission system with the spread of the Unit Detail Plans, while in the short term the current development control can not help relying on lessened regulations and specified permission processes. That is, the regulation system will weaken and the small custom-made plans will spread out, and in turn the development control will be based on the planning system in the future. (The rest is omitted)
- 도시정책 패러다임 변화에 따른 토지이용규제방식의 개선방안 연구(A study on the improvements of development control considering the changes of urban policy paradigm)
- 김상조; 김성수; 김동근; 오선영
도시정책 패러다임 변화에 따른 토지이용규제방식의 개선방안 연구(A study on the improvements of development control considering the changes of urban policy paradigm)
경기도 : 국토연구원
|Series Title; No||국토연 / 2011-71|
|Subject Country||South Korea(Asia and Pacific)|
|Subject||Territorial Development < National Land Development
Territorial Development < Environment