The most important change in overall economic relations in East Asia in the past two decades has been the shift in relative position of Japan and China. Transborder flows of investment and technology has facilitated the shift from a Japan-led economic development to a China-oriented economic development in East Asia. The rise of China does not necessarily mean the resurgence of China-centered regional economic order. Instead, we observe the formation of transborder economic spaces along the coastal areas of China, where in cities and firms compete and cooperate each other.
This study aims at, first, explaining the changes in the economic geography of the maritime zone of East Asia and, second, examining the responses taken by city-regions to these changes by focusing on transborder spaces. Since city-regions instead of nations are more meaningful units of analysis in increasingly transnationalized economies, the study places an emphasis on the transformations of city-regions in the transborder regions. An allied objective of the study is to derive policy implications for cities in Korea and East Asia. Hong-Kong, Taibei, Singapore, Incheon (Qingdao), Busan (Fukuoka) are selected for detailed case studies.
In Chapter 2, the study takes a brief look at the historical background of transborder inter-city networks and cooperation from ancient to modern time. Essentially the border is the creation of the nation-states system. The trend of globalization, especially in the form of expanding global and regional production networks suggests that the meaning of the border is primarily related to security. In economic terms, the border implies differences in the price and quality of labor and in innovation capacity embedded in places. The formation of transborder regions is, however, influenced by the degree of border controls (especially with regard to labor mobility) and policy intervention. Thus, the study develops a matrix of transborder regions along two axes – policy and border.
Chapter 3 discussed the historical precedents and motive forces of transborder regions in East Asia. China-centered tributary system before the 18th century, the Greater East Asia Co-prosperity zone during the Japanese imperial period, the so-called flying-geese pattern of development during the 1970s and 1980s, and he recent emergence of transborder regions are examined. The formation of transborder regions along coastal China is pointed out as a notable phenomenon, which is differentiated from either the china-centered tributary system or the center-periphery pattern of the world systems theory.
The product cycle theory and the flying geese model assume industrial shift among countries along the stages of product or stages of industrial development, i.e., from labor-intensive to knowledge-intensive industries through capital-intensive industries. If the theory works, we can expect the division of labor leading into industrial specialization among component nations and subnational regions. The industrial specialization hypothesis was examined by using manufacturing employment data of coastal China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Korea and Japan (which is defined as maritime East Asia). The result does not support the hypothesis. The same analysis using both manufacturing and services employment data, however, suggests that there exists a tendency of specialization. It is further speculated that advanced city-regions of East Asia will specialize more in service industries as manufacturing will be further concentrated in coastal China in the next few decades.
(The rest is omitted)
- 동아시아 초국경적 지역 형성과 도시전략(Transborder regional development and urban stratedy in East Asia)
- 김원배; Douglass, Mike; 박세훈; 김민영
동아시아 초국경적 지역 형성과 도시전략(Transborder regional development and urban stratedy in East Asia)
김원배; Douglass, Mike; 박세훈; 김민영
경기도 : 국토연구원
|Series Title; No||국토연 / 2009-42|
|Subject Country||Eastern Asia(Asia and Pacific)
South Korea(Asia and Pacific)
|Subject||Economy < Trade
Territorial Development < National Land Development