Until the early 1990s, urban policy of Korea aimed to develop cities efficiently and economically. For efficient urban development, central government had a main role in the process and citizens and residents had no role. In the mid-1990s, there were voices to expand the route of citizen’s participation in urban and community development and recently urban policy turned to citizen-initiated and government-supported system. The change of awareness of citizen’s participation, however, it seems to be just rhetoric. It is because official participation process is still limited and such a new system is accomplished in very limited communities in which residents are ready to actively participate.
Aiming for resident-involved community development, this research focuses on capacity building from individuals to organisations and to communities. Emphasizing residents’ capacity building for community development is particularly important in Korean context, because urban policy in Korea has been biased to physical improvement rather than people living in the place.
This research draws three indicators to analyze the degree of capacity building in the participation in specific community development projects: (from indifference to) participation, sustainability, and openness. With literature reviews, the list of the factors which influence such indicators is provided. The factors are classified into three: individual character, the involvement experience in community organisations, and social relation (network).
At the individual level, the influential factors for participation from indifference are ‘the sense of achievement to the society’, ‘trustful social network’ and ‘the effort to accord their own interest with the public interest’. For sustainability and openness, ‘the active membership in local organisations’ ‘social lifelong education programme’, ‘the degree of dominance in social network’, ‘trust in neighbourhood’ and ‘the effort to keep their neighbours close’ are considered as important factors.
At organizational level, people, who have strong sense of neighbourhood and membership of community-level organisations and charities, are more participated in community development projects and have more belongingness to their community. It means such organisations should be financially and administratively supported by government for capacity building and, moreover, resident-initiated community development.
This research proposes some political suggestions in order to enforce the role of residents in community development, as follows;
First, government does not need to provide all the programmes for capacity building, but need to enable mediation agencies or organisations between local government and residents. They can be charities, resident organisations or community-based non-governmental organisations.
Second, all communities need communal space to chat, discuss and meet other people. The space can be community libraries, community centres, or charity café etc. The communal space has an important role for residents to keep their network and solidarity. In order not to exclude others, the communal space must be open to everyone in the community.
Third, capacity building should also be evaluated if it is set up as one of the important community development policy. The questions for survey, indicators and factors can be the evaluation indicators. Before the evaluation system of capacity building, citizen participation and capacity building should be considered in the existing community development programmes like livable city making projects. Moreover, new capacity building programme may be needed.
- 시민참여형 도시정비를 위한 시민역량 강화방안(Capacity building for community development in Korea)
- 이영아; 변필성; 류승한; 최병남
시민참여형 도시정비를 위한 시민역량 강화방안(Capacity building for community development in Korea)
|Series Title; No||국토연 / 2008-53|
|Subject Country||South Korea(Asia and Pacific)|
|Subject||Territorial Development < National Land Development|