Recently, transportation energy consumption and air pollution have rapidly increased due to urban sprawl and increase in use of automobiles. To solve such problems, it is necessary to adopt policies to discourage use of automobiles. This study focuses on the strategies to change travel patterns such as conversion from relatively high-cost transportation mode like automobiles into low-cost green mode like public transportation, bicycles or walking.
This paper consists of five chapters. Chapter One, as an introduction, explains the backgrounds, purpose, methods, scope of this study. In Chapter Two, the concepts and cases of energy-efficient urban form in developed countries are examined mainly in consideration of the compact city theory, decentralized concentration development and new urbanism. And then, the implications in community planning of Korea are discussed.
In Chapter Three, many empirical studies about the factors affecting travel patterns are reviewed, and the research framework of this study is established. First, socio-economic factors-income, gender, age, car ownership and so on – affecting travel patterns are presented. And then, the relationship between urban form factors and travel patterns is discussed. Especially urban for factors are explained in terms of regional, local and neighborhood level. In a regional or a local level, proximity to downtown, settlement size, population density and proximity to main transport networks might affect travel patterns. At controlling these socio-economic factors and urban form factors of regional and local level, in a neighborhood level, street networks, block size, pedestrian environments are selected as the variables. These variables are classified four categories of street connectivity, easiness of crossings, sidewalks continuity, amenity of pedestrian environments.
Chapter Four is the comparative analyses of two cases of new towns. A questionnaire survey concerning travel patterns is carried out in Pyongchon and Gwacheon, which are similar in socio-economic characteristics. Urban form characteristics and, socio-economic characteristics of each area, and travel behaviors and feelings of pedestrian environment of residents are included in data. The survey results are as follows;
It is analyzed that urban form factors of neighborhood level affect the use of nonmotorized modes in access trips to transit, trips for purchasing commodities, trips for purchasing durable goods, strolling and exercise trips. Therefore, the better the quality of pedestrian environment is, the higher of the frequency of transit and walking is, thus saving transportation energy consumption. The concrete implications of planning are as follows;
First, in regard of street network, loop pattern is better is better than gridiron pattern on purpose to reduce vehicle speed in case of large size and high density residential development of Korea. To reduce traffic passing through residential districts, it is necessary to encourage use of bypass roads and make road width much narrower.
Second, it is not recommended to establish super blocks around arterial roads, which cause to promote automobile-centered development in neighborhoods. And housing types, residential activities and landscape in a neighborhood are required to be diversified. Third, the residential community has to be designed with substantial pedestrian system and comfortable pedestrian environment. In this regard, appropriate location of crossing facilities, vegetation maintenance, noise and pollution regulations are required. (The rest is omitted)
- 에너지 효율적 도시형태에 관한 연구(The relationship between urban form and travel patterns)
에너지 효율적 도시형태에 관한 연구(The relationship between urban form and travel patterns)
경기도 : 국토연구원
|Series Title; No||국토연 / 2002-28|
|Subject Country||South Korea(Asia and Pacific)|
|Subject||Territorial Development < National Land Development
Territorial Development < Environment