The housing policy of Korea has so far been focused on the expansion of housing construction and establishment of foundation for housing industry. The current housing policy for low-income households includes two components: 1) the housing allowance system run by the Ministry of public Health and Social Welfare; and 2) housing welfare, public rental housing policy and home loans or jeonse(a tenure system in Korea, whereby the tenant makes a lump sum deposit to the landlord and the deposit is refunded when contract expires. The tenant does not pay a monthly rent and instead gives up the interest on the deposit.) lonas program operated by the Ministry of Construction and Transportation. But actual housing support for low-income households is absolutely insufficient. As the enhancement of housing supply ratio is expected to solve the problem of housing shortages from now on, the function of welfare policy for low-income households, should be strengthened. The housing allowance system, therefore, will likely attract more attention. However, the current housing welfare program for low-income households shows inefficiency and problems under the dual operation by the two Ministries, and thus rearrangement of housing and welfare programs is needed.
Hosing is an essential element for human life and housing policy for low-income households, in particular, is closely related to welfare policy. A welfare state should provide its citizen with minimum living conditions and it should deal with pressures from market and civil society, performing its functions to support them. It should also complement weakness of market economy such as quantitative and qualitative problems and distributional inequity in housing resources. A welfare state has originally emerged in this regard, and thus one of its basic roles is to prevent social problems caused by defects of the system. In short, a welfare state is to develop housing policies as a part of social policy and to solve quantitative and qualitative housing problems.
Welfare states pursued by capitalistic systems are classified into a few types. Esping-Andersen(Princeton Univ. Press, 1990) divided welfare states into three types: Liberal Welfare State, corporatist Welfare State, and Social Democratic Welfare State according to the extent of “decommdification,” which shows how much the social right qualified by the state reduces people’s reliance on market, and impacts of policies of a welfare state on the structure of social class. Under this classification, Korea is defined as a Liberal Welfare State and thus future strategies are oriented within the framework of Liberal Welfare State and thus future strategies are oriented within the framework of Liberal Welfare State. Therefore, it is useful to examine carefully the systems of the United Kingdom, Japan, etc. which are categorized as Liberal Welfare State as well.
As housing policy is a part of social policy, a few problems might be noticed with regards to the welfare and housing policies in Korea: the Public Assistance Program can diminish the motivations for work due to its principle of complementation. It cannot cover a marginal social class. Moreover, the Program lacks systematic linkage with other social welfare systems. In fact, the Public Assistance Program is considered inadequate to support the poor in terms of level of benefits and scope of assistances. As of 2002, 28,000~53,000 won is paid to one household, which is far below the minimum housing expenses, considering the fact that housing expenses form 30% of total living expenses in low-income households. As the housing allowance is included in the living allowance system at present, the beneficiaries are limited to those who are qualified for the living allowance system.
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- 주거정책과 복지정책의 연계방안 연구(Intergration of housing and welfare policies)
- 고철; 천현숙; 박능후; 이태진; 최현수; 노언정
- 국토연구원; 한국보건사회연구원
주거정책과 복지정책의 연계방안 연구(Intergration of housing and welfare policies)
|Series Title; No||국토연 / 2002-46|
|Subject Country||South Korea(Asia and Pacific)|
|Subject||Territorial Development < General
Social Development < Social Welfare