The irrigation project evaluated in this report was designed to help South Korea become self-sufficient in rice and barley and to raise farm incomes. Fifty-five irrigation works including pumping systems, drainage, reservoir construction, and land reclamation were completed. All were small (and in many instances nearly complete) elements of a larger system. Rice self-sufficiency was achieved by 1975, soon after the project began. Barley production declined due to a high rice support price and a growing demand for wheat in urban areas. Farm incomes increased. However, because farm incomes are directly related to farm size, the project affected beneficiaries unequally. The project's success is attributable to the high degree of engineering and administrative competence demonstrated by the Government of Korea, the effective delivery of extension services and agricultural inputs, and the high support price for rice. Lessons learned include the following: (1) More attention to overall economic trends and collection of baseline data is needed in the project design stage. (2) Small and medium irrigation schemes can be economical when added to an already effective farming system. (3) Because neither the bureaucratic nor social structure of Korea permits farmers and their wives to participate in project decisionmaking, community development outputs should not be expected from such special projects. (4) The assumption that a strong correlation exists between higher income and improved nutritional standards is false in non-subsistence economies. Korean farm families directed their extra income to the education of their children rather than to dietary improvements. (5) Unless the effects on women are considered in the project design, women's working conditions may deteriorate. (The labor-saving technology introduced in this project benefited men; women have undertaken a larger share of the field work as children have left home for school or urban employment.) Aging of the farm population as the result of increased education and migration to urban areas will be an important factor in future farm development. Appendices include related socioeconomic studies and a brief bibliography (11 entries, 1974-80).