In the context of a Government of Korea (GOK) strategy to improve rural life, A.I.D. funded a 1974-80 project to strengthen the GOK's agricultural research (AR) service. The impact of that project is here reported. Results in the three project areas were mixed. Training was universally regarded as the most successful component, with the provision of equipment (especially a computer and library materials) of notable, but decidedly secondary importance. Short-term foreign help was of greater importance than resident help, which was of marginal utility. The project paper was simplistic and somewhat misleading, underestimating current experimental yields and calling for breakthroughs that had already occurred, e.g., development of high-yield varieties (HYV) that helped make Korea self-sufficient in rice by 1975. Concentration on rice led to a deemphasis on other important crops. Thus, while project yield increases may be achieved by their 1984 target date, overall national targets will not be met. In fact, despite yield increases in some crops, hectarage in others have been falling - due to a rigid command structure which prevented the GOK's well-organized extension service from taking precautions, especially regarding new races of blast fungal disease and cold-sensitive varieties, the factors causing, respectively, the 1979 and 1980 crop failures. In sum, the project, while appropriate at the time, was not innovative; the future of AR in Korea will depend on the GOK's resources and political will. Other lessons learned are that: overstress on achieving targets and too strong a command structure can lead to undue focus on short-term results; an AR program must be continuous and integrate AR, extension, training, agricultural education, and farmer incentives; P.L. 480 can retard AR by deferring improved prices; HYV adoption can have both positive and negative economic effects; technical help should be reviewed prior to a project; ongoing contracts with international AR centers are essential; and the causes of the agricultural successes in Sino-centric societies should be studied. Appendices include six individual reports and a 42-item bibliography (1958-81).