South Korea has recently experienced serious increases in chronic disease, physical accident, and old and new infectious diseases. However, the current delivery system of public health and medical services is not sufficiently equipped to deal with such problems. Moreover, in an environment where public healthcare remains dwarfed in comparison to private sector-based healthcare services, other problems come to the fore, including the lack of delivery of essential services and the unequal distribution of healthcare personnel resources between rural and urban areas and between different income classes. This study is conducted to suggest measures for improving the health and medical service delivery system in line with changing pattern of diseases. In the process, this study ⅰ) explains what changes should be made in services and providers to efficiently deal with chronic diseases, emergency cases, and infectious diseases; ⅱ) proposes coordination schemes for various providers of health and medical services; ⅲ) analyzes the current state of public health and medical services; and ⅳ) suggests what roles public institutions should play in dealing with chronic and infectious diseases and in improving emergency medical services.