Agriculture has made a great contribution to solving food shortage in Korea. In recent years, however, the agriculture and fisheries is threatend by the increasing pollution. The examples are pollution by overused chemicals and pesticides, pollution from livestock manure, pollution in the intensive fishing farm. In this regrad, food quality including food safety is a great concern to domestic consumers. Also, raising quality rather than lowering prices of the products is better strategy for Korean agriculture and fisheries facing globally open economy. Environment-friendly agriculture and fisheries(EFAF) is an alternative way to highten the quality of the products, and hence to have competitiveness in the world market. In addition, agriculture has non-market benefits, i.e., environment conservation. Soil conservation, water resource developement, flood control and air refreshment are good examples. The underlying issue is how to maximize the positive effects, minimizing the negative effects. As alternative ways to current production technologies, some suggestions are made. Organic farming/natural farming, reuse of animal manure, and hydroponic farming are some types of EFAF emerging in Korea. Policy change should be made and government support is needed to promote EFAF. Related institution and investment programs for EFAF should be carefully designed and carried out.