콘텐츠 바로가기
로그인
컨텐츠

Category Open

Resources

tutorial

Collection of research papers and materials on development issues

home

Resources
Social Development Gender

Print

Gender in transition : The case of North Korea

Related Document
Frame of Image
  • Gender in transition
  • Haggard, Stephan; Noland, Marcus
  • East-West Center


link
Title Gender in transition
Similar Titles
Sub Title

The case of North Korea

Material Type Reports
Author(English)

Haggard, Stephan; Noland, Marcus

Publisher

Honolulu:East-West Center

Date 2011-11
Series Title; No East-West Center Working Papers, Economics Series
Pages 124
Subject Country North Korea(Asia and Pacific)
Language English
File Type Link
Subject Social Development < Gender
Holding East-West Center

Abstract

This paper uses a survey of 300 North Korean refugees to examine the experience of women in North Korea’s fitful economic transition. Like other socialist states, North Korea has maintained a de jure commitment to women's rights. However, we find that women have been disproportionately shed from state-affiliated employment and thrust into a market environment characterized by weak institutions and corruption. As a result, the state and its affiliated institutions are increasingly populated by males, and the market, particularly in its retail aspects, is dominated by women. Among the most recent cohort of refugees to leave North Korea, more than one-third of male respondents indicate that criminality and corruption is the best way to make money, and 95 percent of female traders report paying bribes to avoid the penal system. In short, the increasingly male-dominated state preys on the increasingly female-dominated market. These results paint a picture of a vulnerable group that has been disadvantaged in North Korea's transition. (The rest omitted)