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Initial Vocational Education and Training Policy

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Initial Vocational Education and Training Policy06



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Title Initial Vocational Education and Training Policy
Similar Titles
Material Type Reports
Date 2015
Language Korean
File Type Theme
Subject Social Development < Education

Abstract

A. Introduction of the Initial VET System



In the 1960s and the 1970s, the Korean government established the framework of vocational education and training (VET) system in order to actively respond to rapidly increasing demand for skilled workers and technicians.



Since the mid-1960s when the government began to implement a series of comprehensive economic development plans, the Korean economy began to grow rapidly. The government scaled up the economy by promoting labor-intensive light industries in the second economic development period (1967–1971) and undertook fundamental structural change toward heavy and chemical industries in the third and fourth economic development plans period (1972–1981).



A.1.) Vocational Education System



In order to meet the rapidly increasing demand for skilled workers, the government strengthened vocational education programs at high school level in the early 1960s and tried to expand them. Korea put its policy emphasis on ##3D_LAYER##vocational education at the secondary level##3D_TEXT:1) Lee and Hong. (2014). The development of vocational high schools in Korea during the industrialization period. KSP Module.##3D_LINK:https://www.kdevelopedia.org/Resources/social-development/development-vocational-high-schools-koreduring-industrialization-period--04201405130131827.do?fldIds=TP_SOC|TP_SOC_ED#.Vft48tLtlHw##3D_TEXT:2) Kim, C.Y. (2011). "Chapter 20: Technical Education and Vocational Training", in From despair to hope: Economic policymaking in Korea 1945-1979. KDI.##3D_LINK:https://www.kdevelopedia.org/Resources/economy/from-despair-hope--05201202170066589.do?fldIds=TP_ECO|TP_ECO_GE#.VgTVctLtlHw##3D_LAYER_END## ##3D_LAYER##[1]##3D_TEXT:1) Refer to Sub-theme 4 "Cases".##3D_TEXT:2)[e-Learning] "Module 3: Promoting Skilled Workers Through Vocational Education", in The role of Vocational Training in Korea’s Economic Development##3D_LINK:https://www.kdevelopedia.org/Resources/social-development/role-vocational-training-korea%E2%80%99s-economic-development--05201512140142635.do?fldIds=TP_SOC|TP_SOC_ED#.VnnmXeaG9HU##3D_LAYER_END## after achieving ##3D_LAYER##universal primary education##3D_TEXT:1) KEDI. (2007). "Chapter 3: Korea’s Achievements in Elementary and Secondary Education", in School education in Korea.##3D_LINK:https://www.kdevelopedia.org/Resources/social-development/school-education-korea--04201509090139847.do?fldIds=TP_SOC|TP_SOC_ED#.VgUCnNLtlHw##3D_TEXT:2) UN. (2012). Toward universal primary education: investments, incentives, and institutions.##3D_LINK:https://www.kdevelopedia.org/Resources/social-development/toward-universal-primary-education-investments-incentives-institutions--05201512140142645.do?fldIds=TP_SOC|TP_SOC_ED#.Vnl1p7Z9600##3D_LAYER_END## because VET market was not well developed at that time. 



In addition to vocational high schools, the Korean government extended 3-year vocational high schools into nine 5-year professional institutes (3-year vocational high school courses and 2-year technical junior college courses) in nine different regions based on industrial characteristics in 1963, in order to meet the increasing demand for technicians in the 1960s. 



Thanks to the success of the 5-year economic development plans and consequent increase in financial support, the number of the institutes increased from 9 in 1963 to 23 in 1969. Vocational schools were transformed into 2-year junior colleges since 1970, which continued to play as main supplier of technicians. Due to government budget constraints, the government encouraged private sector to establish and run private vocational high schools and junior colleges.



[Graph showing changing trend of students in private vocational education (VE) schools]



[Source: ##3D_LAYER##Paik, S.J. (2013). Roles of Private Schools. KSP Module.##3D_TEXT:Paik, S.J. (2013). Role of private schools in Korea’s educational development, KSP Module.##3D_LINK:https://www.kdevelopedia.org/Resources/social-development/role-private-schools-korea%E2%80%99s-educational-development--04201306170126737.do?fldIds=TP_SOC|TP_SOC_ED#.Vnf-4tKqmy0##3D_LAYER_END##]



A.2.) Vocational Training System



Despite the expansion of vocational high schools and post-secondary institutes, Korea experienced shortage of skilled workers. This raised the need for establishing a national vocational training system outside of formal education, which led to the enactment of the Vocational Training Act in 1967. The Ministry of Labor took charge of managing vocational training system, including the establishment of ##3D_LAYER##public vocational training institutes##3D_TEXT:Ra, Y.S. (2012). Government-led vocational training system and its lessons : In case of South Korea before the IMF economic crisis. UCLA-IRLE.##3D_LINK:https://www.kdevelopedia.org/Resources/social-development/government-led-vocational-training-system-its-lessons--05201412150135870.do?fldIds=TP_SOC|TP_SOC_ED|TP_SOC_EM#.Vge_g9K8PGc##3D_LAYER_END## ##LINK_POPUP##[2]##MAINTITLE:Public Vocational Training Institutes##TITLE:Foreign assistance and public training institutes in Korea##CONTENT:Foreign assistance played crucial roles in establishing public training institutes throughout the country and consequently developing Korea’s vocational training system in the 1970s. Advanced countries like Germany, Belgium, U.S., and Japan supported financial aids for establishing several vocational training institutes together with international donor organizations such as IBRD and ADB. These countries and international development organizations provided technically advanced training facilities and professional assistance. The Korean government supplied expenses for training materials and other costs. These vocational training institutes provided mainly short-term courses to youths.



[Table 1: Public Vocational Institutes established by foreing aids]





















































  Number of Institutes Year(s) of Eastablishment Donors
Central V.T. Center 1 1968 UNDP, ILO
Korea-Germany V.T.C. 1 1970 Germany
Jungsoo V.T.C. 1 1973 U.S.
Korea-Belgium V.T.C. 1 1976 Belgium
Daejeon V.T.C. 1 1976 Japan
Agricultural V.T.C.s 9 1969-71, 1974-76 UNICEF, UNDP
Local V.T.C.s 20 1974-80 ADB, IBRD

[Source: Suh, Sang-sun (2002). Vocational Training System in Korea. KCCI. pp.117-156.]##LINK_POPUP_END##, skills testing system, and the employment service for those who completed vocational training.



As the problem of labor shortage was persistent in the 1970s, the government made it mandatory for employers to provide in-plant training by legislating the Basic Law for Vocational Training in 1976. Employers who could not provide in-plant training should pay training levy. Vocational training in the 1970s and 1980s was mainly focused on initial training for unemployed youth. Due to high standards for mandatory training specified in the related legislation, in-company training made a significant contribution to supplying skilled labor.



To induce competent young students into the vocational education track, the Korean government tried to recognize skilled workers and technicians as core members of society. For example, the winners of both national and ##3D_LAYER##world skills competitions##3D_TEXT:[Web-link] S. Korea Wins World Skills Competition for 19th Time. KBS World Radio.##3D_LINK:https://www.kdevelopedia.org/Resources/social-development/s-korewins-world-skills-competition-19th-time--05201512140142643.do?fldIds=TP_SOC|TP_SOC_ED#.VnmGorZ9600##3D_LAYER_END## were highly praised and rewarded. 

  ##PAGE##

B. Structural Changes in Vocational Education System



In the 1990s when Korea moved into global and knowledge-based economy, the Korean economy was confronted with challenges from globalization of trade and labor markets, rapid technological advancement, and intensified competition. Demand for labor with higher levels of skills increased. Therefore, the focus of vocational education shifted from high schools to junior colleges##3D_LAYER##[3]##3D_TEXT:Enrollment in junior colleges increased from 323,825 in 1990 to 913,273 in 2000, while number of junior colleges went up from 117 to 158 for the same period.##3D_LAYER_END##. MOE’s financial support to junior colleges increased very rapidly especially after 1996, while its support to vocational high schools decreased.



In the 2000s, the initial VET in Korea faced several challenges such as decrease in youth cohort, increase in higher education opportunities, over-education, and poor link between schools and industry. The proportion of youth cohort was expected to continue to decrease in the future. This required better education and VET system which could train labor force with higher productivity. The government tried to expand ##3D_LAYER##direct links between vocational high schools and junior colleges and industries##3D_TEXT:Lee, Y.H. (2007). "Chapter III.D&E: Government Grant Programs to Promote School-industry Collaboration & Practices of School-industry Collaboration", in Workforce development in the Republic of Korea: Policies and practices.Asian Development Bank Institute.##3D_LINK:https://www.kdevelopedia.org/Resources/social-development/workforce-development-republic-korea--05201311110128899.do?fldIds=TP_SOC|TP_SOC_EM#.Vgeok9K8PGc##3D_LAYER_END##, strengthen courses for basic competencies like problem-solving and communication in regular vocational high schools, and encourage local governments to support junior college education by initiating collaboration among local businesses and junior colleges (e.g., ##3D_LAYER##industrial technology education clusters##3D_TEXT:1) Choi, H.S. (2007). Factors of company participation in university-industry cooperation: current issues. Korea Institute for Industrial Economics and Trade.##3D_LINK:https://www.kdevelopedia.org/Resources/industry-technology/factors-company-participation-university-industry-cooperation--04201202160001150.do?fldIds=TP_IND|TP_IND_EP#.VhMpK-ztlHw##3D_TEXT:2) Choi, H.S. (2007). Designing a university-industry cooperative HRD system for the globalization era. Korea Institute for Industrial Economics and Trade.##3D_LINK:https://www.kdevelopedia.org/Resources/industry-technology/designing-university-industry-cooperative-hrd-system-globalization-era--04201202160001156.do?fldIds=TP_IND|TP_IND_EP|TP_SOC|TP_SOC_ED#.VhMp3eztlHw##3D_TEXT:3) Shin, G.W. (2002). A study on innovation toward university-industry networking. Science and Technology Policy Institute.##3D_LINK:https://www.kdevelopedia.org/Resources/industry-technology/study-innovation-toward-university-industry-networking--05201211080122984.do?fldIds=TP_IND|TP_IND_SC|TP_SOC|TP_SOC_ED#.VhMp3-ztlHw##3D_LAYER_END##).



Since 2010, the MOE has been:-

(i) restructuring vocational high schools into ##3D_LAYER##50 Meister High Schools##3D_TEXT:1) Choi and Ji. (2014). "Section III. Chapter 1: Meister High School System", in TVE-led economic development in Korea and its implications for developoing couountries. KIET Occasional Paper 91.##3D_LINK:https://www.kdevelopedia.org/Resources/industry-technology/tve-led-economic-development-koreits-implications-developing-countries--04201404010131163.do?fldIds=TP_IND|TP_IND_GE|TP_SOC|TP_SOC_ED#.VgTVTNLtlHw##3D_TEXT:2) Park et al. (2014). "Chapter 5: Performance and Analysis of Meister High School", in The present and future of secondary vocational education in Korea. KRIVET.##3D_LINK:https://www.kdevelopedia.org/Resources/social-development/present-future-secondary-vocational-education-korea--05201501100136164.do?fldIds=TP_SOC|TP_SOC_ED#.Vfu8XNLtlHw##3D_LAYER_END## and 350 Specialized High Schools by 2015;

(ii) applying competence-based curriculum, and

(iii) encouraging vocational high school graduates to get employed first##LINK_POPUP##[4]##MAINTITLE:Employ First, Study While Working

##TITLE:Vocational High School graduates and "Employment First, Study While Working" Policy##CONTENT:There were several policies for the campaign of "Employment First, Study While Working" that intended to reduce excessively high demand for higher education and provide more rational career opportunities to vocational high school students in 2010. 



For employment-focused school education, policies for tailor-made curriculum, internship, teachers from industry, vocational high school–industry–junior college linkage, career guide, and job search were implemented. 



For employment of vocational high school graduates, the Ministry of Defense allowed male graduates to defer their enlistment until they become 24 years old and the Ministry of Strategy and Finance provided tax incentives to companies that participated in school-industry cooperation works. 



For continuous education for vocational high school graduates working in the company, the government provided support to companies that planned to establish corporate colleges, encouraged universities to have separate degree programs for incumbent workers, subsidized the departments of universities that contracted with SMEs by the Employment Insurance System and expanded student loan.##LINK_POPUP_END##



C. Checking Points



The Korean case of initial VET implies that when developing initial VET policies, a country needs to check:-

(i) whether VET market is formed and well functioning;

(ii) whether VET policies are based on national economic development plans – whether there are ample employment opportunities, ##MORE_LAYER_BOX##

There have been systematic matches between national development strategies and education and VET policies, which can be attributed to strong government leadership and good coordination among ministries.



[Table 2: Economic Development and VET Policies in Korea (1960-present)##3D_LAYER##[5]##3D_TEXT:Paik, S.J. (2014). Pre-employment VET Investment Strategy in Developing Countries – Based on the Experiences of Korea. KDI School Working Paper.##3D_LINK:https://www.kdevelopedia.org/Resources/social-development/pre-employment-vet-investment-strategy-developing-countries--05201512230142749.do##3D_LAYER_END##]














































Decade Development Goals and Major Strategies Education Policies VET Policies
1960s - Build industry base & SOC

- Import-substitution of capital equipment

- Promote export of light 

 industry products
- Decrease adult illiteracy

- Accomplish primary 

 compulsory education
- Introduce curriculum for 

 vocational high schools

- Implement 5-year plan for 

 science and technology 

 education

- Establish public vocational 

 training system
1970s - Build self-reliant growth base

- Develop heavy & chemical  

 industries

- Change industrial structure and 

 improve competitiveness
- Expand secondary and junior college education - Strengthen vocational 

 education and training

- Restructure 5-year vocational

 institutes into 2-year junior 

 college and expand

- Increase engineering-major 

 college graduates

- Set up skill certification 

 system (National Technical 

 Qualification Law)
1980s - Develop technology-intensive 

 industries

- Rearrange industrial structure
- Expand higher education 

 enrollment

- Promote R&D
- Include more general 

 courses in curriculum of 

 vocational high schools
1990s - Promote high-technology 

 innovation

- Reinforce SOC

- Build information infrastructure
- Expand investment on 

 R&D 

- Develop highly skilled 

 human resources in 

 strategic fields: IT, BT, 

 CT, etc.

- Develop lifelong 

 learning system
- Increase vocational high 

 school enrollment 

- Strengthen cooperation 

 between school and industry

- Diversify types of 

 vocational high schools

- Promote linkage of 

vocational high schools with

junior colleges
2000s - Promote high-value added 

 technology innovation
- Improve quality and 

 relevance of higher 

 education

- Increase investment on 

 R&D

- Promote lifelong 

 learning system
- Promote specialized 

 vocational high schools 

- Provide more basic 

competency program in 

regular vocational high 

schools

- Promote cooperation among 

 pre-employment VET 

 providers, industry, and 

 governments

- Increase investment to 

 junior colleges and    

 universities
2010s - Promote creative innovation

- Balance export with domestic marker
- Promote student’s creativity and character 

- Restructure higher education institutions 

- Provide new programs and MOOC for adults
- Restructure vocational high schools and junior colleges

- Apply new curriculum based on ‘National Competency Standards’

- Strengthen specialties and school-industry cooperation

##MORE_LAYER_BOX_END##

(iii) whether there are mechanisms that can coordinate different sake holders’ opinions,

(iv) whether the private sector is ready for and capable of providing VET, and

(v) whether the government is ready to provide strong leadership in terms of policy-making and finance.