Sub-Theme 3 | Institutional Arrangements
In order to enhance the relevance, effectiveness, efficiency, and quality of VET policies and to vitalize VET market, it is integral and necessary to have well-designed supporting mechanisms like qualification system, quality assurance mechanism, policies to induce private sector into training market, and coordination among stakeholders, and employment service.
##3D_LAYER##Qualification##3D_TEXT:1) Kang, S.H. (2005). Korea’s qualification system: Current issues and measures. Korea Labor Institute.##3D_LINK:https://www.kdevelopedia.org/Resources/social-development/koreas-qualification-system--05201211130123164.do?fldIds=TP_SOC|TP_SOC_EM#.Vfuw19LtlHw##3D_TEXT:2) [Web-link] Statutes of the Republic of Korea - National Technical Qualifications Act.##3D_LINK:https://www.kdevelopedia.org/Resources/government-law/national-technical-qualifications-act--05201512230142755.do?fldIds=TP_GOV|TP_GOV_LA#.Vnoq2easVHU##3D_TEXT:3) [Web-link] National Qualification Test. Human Resource Development Service of Korea.##3D_LINK:https://www.kdevelopedia.org/Resources/social-development/national-qualification-test--05201512230142754.do?fldIds=TP_SOC|TP_SOC_ED#.VnojHuasVHU##3D_LAYER_END## is crucial in that it connects the VET programs with labor market skill demands and also functions as a standard for assessing the performance of VET programs and providers and as a mechanism for recognizing individuals’ VET results. The Korean government introduced Skill Test and Certification System in 1967 and enacted the ‘National Technical Qualification Law’ in 1973. These were to officially test and recognize VET results of individuals, guide VET according to labor market demands, and enhance socio-economic status of individual workers by providing nationally recognized certifications. No matter where a person gets trained, s/he can get employed and treated equally in the labor market as long as s/he has a qualification certificate approved by the government. This law contributed to expanding vocational training provision to a large number of adolescents including middle and high school graduates with no marketable skills. Since establishing its legal framework, the National Technical Qualification System##3D_LAYER####3D_TEXT:Park et al. (2012). Role and function of the National Qualification System in the Development of Vocational Ability. KSP Module. Ministry of Employment and Labor and Human Resources Development Service of Korea.##3D_LINK:https://www.kdevelopedia.org/Resources/social-development/role-function-national-technical-qualification-system-development-vocational-ability--04201210100122101.do?fldIds=TP_SOC|TP_SOC_OT#.Vm5fOdKLTcs##3D_LAYER_END## has evolved according to the changes in the characteristics of skills. Recently Korea tries to reform its qualification framework through introducing the National Competency Standards (NCS) which is used as a basis for developing curriculum, vocational standards, and qualification standards.
B. Quality Assurance Mechanism
##3D_LAYER##Quality assurance mechanism##3D_TEXT:Rha, H.M. (2012). Quality assurance system of training institutions in Korea. KRIVET.##3D_LINK:https://www.kdevelopedia.org/Resources/social-development/quality-assurance-system-training-institutions-korea--05201401080129942.do?fldIds=TP_SOC|TP_SOC_ED#.Vfu5j9LtlHw##3D_LAYER_END## for individuals, VET programs and institutes is required to guarantee certain level of quality of VET services. Information on the performance of VET programs and institutes and job opportunities enables VET consumers (individuals, firms) to make right decisions on their investment in VET and promotes constructive competition among VET providers which leads to quality improvement. Since Korea introduced a Vocational Competency Development Program based on the demand-side finance principle in 1995, the government has generated information on the performance of VT programs and institutes based on evaluations conducted every year and disseminated it through its web-site so that employers, employees, and the unemployed can make informed decisions.
C. Participation of Private Sector
Private sector’s participation in VET market is important in that it can ease the government’s budget constraints and solve the problem of public sector’s inherent inefficiency in promptly responding to changes in skill demands. In 1963, Korea enacted the Private School Law to promote the development of private schools##3D_LAYER####3D_TEXT:Paik, S-J. (2013). "Roles of Private Schools in Korea’s Educational Development", KSP Module, Ministry of Education and KDI School.##3D_LINK:https://www.kdevelopedia.org/Resources/social-development/role-private-schools-korea%E2%80%99s-educational-development--04201306170126737.do?fldIds=TP_SOC|TP_SOC_ED#.Vmpk69KLTcs##3D_LAYER_END## In 1995, Korea reshuffled her vocational training system by introducing EIS that allows private VT institutes to participate in training market. Without clear definition of roles and responsibilities of private sector (enterprises and private vocational training institutes) and the consistency and sustainability of policies for encouraging the private sector’s participation in the provision of VET, however, private sector would not invest in VET and participate in the training market. The government needs to check whether it has clear laws, regulations, and financial incentives that guarantee management security of private VET institutes and enterprises and equal treatment of VET results, and promote training market that is open to all private providers.
D. Coordination Among Stakeholders
Coordination among stakeholders (i.e., central and local governments, employers, labor unions, and VET institutes) is essential to have closer linkages between economic development plan and VET development plans or between VET programs and labor market skill demands and consequently to have synergy effect. Economic Planning Board between the 1960s and 1980s, and Industry-University Corporation in junior colleges and universities since the 2000s are the good examples.
E. Employment Service
##3D_LAYER##Employment service##3D_TEXT:1) Oh et al. (2013). Building an employment service system for efficient utilization of national human resources. KSP Module.##3D_LINK:https://www.kdevelopedia.org/Resources/social-development/building-employment-service-system-efficient-utilization-national-humresources--04201306140126723.do?fldIds=TP_SOC|TP_SOC_EM#.VhMhZ-ztlHw##3D_TEXT:2) Kim, S.T. (2008). Private employment services(search firms, free job placement agencies, overseas job placement agencies) in Korea. Korea Labor Institute.##3D_LINK:https://www.kdevelopedia.org/Resources/social-development/private-employment-services-search-firms-free-job-placement-agencies-overseas-job-placement-agencies-korea--05201211130123156.do?fldIds=TP_SOC|TP_SOC_EM#.VhMhleztlHw##3D_TEXT:3) KLI. (2006). Employment insurance and public employment services in selected countries. Korea Labor Institute.##3D_LINK:https://www.kdevelopedia.org/Resources/social-development/employment-insurance-public-employment-services-selected-countries--05201212060123672.do?fldIds=TP_SOC|TP_SOC_EM#.VhMhf-ztlHw##3D_LAYER_END##, which connects graduates with jobs, plays a crucial role in enhancing the effectiveness of VET policies. It provides job seekers with a series of services like job search and matching, career guidance, and VET consultancy. It is important to design one-stop service system and target-specific employment service, do marketing of employment service to employers, and have close relationship between public and private employment service institutions.
|Subject||Social Development < Education|