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The Adoption Period (by 1960s)

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The Adoption Period (by 1960s)06



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Title The Adoption Period (by 1960s)
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Material Type Reports
Date 2015
Language Korean
File Type Theme
Subject Social Development < Education

Abstract

A. ##LINK_POPUP##Pre-service Education##MAINTITLE:Pre-service education##TITLE:##CONTENT:Pre-service education is official training or education program for prospective teachers, which was hosted in secondary level before 1961, but is now built in post-secondary or tertiary level. National universities of education, colleges or departments of education, teacher courses in general universities, graduate schools of education have been operating the preparation courses and confer teacher certificates those who successfully completed the requirements.##LINK_POPUP_END## and Recruitment



Teacher Shortage and Responses

 
Right after liberation from Japanese colonial rule, Korea faced a serious shortage of teachers who could teach in Korean. The United States Military Government (USMG) during 1945 to 1948 established teacher-training schools (“##LINK_POPUP##Normal Schools##MAINTITLE:Normal Schools##TITLE:##CONTENT:Normal school refers to the upper secondary school-level teacher education institutions which were operated before 1961 in Korea. 18 normal schools, established by the government, were to supply elementary school teachers, whose demand was soaring during 1950s and 1960s. The graduates of lower secondary schools can join in these special purpose institutions. The normal schools were incorporated into two-year colleges of education as a result of restructuring of teacher education system in the early 1960s (revised from KEDI [2002]).##SOURCE:KEDI (2002). Attracting, developing and retaining effective teachers: OECD Background Report for Korea. OR 2002-8.##LINK:https://www.kdevelopedia.org/Resources/social-development/attracting-developing-retaining-effective-teachers--05201407230133203.do?fldIds=TP_SOC|TP_SOC_ED#.Vpc4r9Kqmy0##LINK_POPUP_END##”) as secondary education and Temporary Teacher Training Centers to supply elementary and secondary schools with more teachers. The Rhee government also established a number of Normal Schools at the secondary level, and teacher training centers (according to the enactment of “establishment of temporary centers of teacher training and re-training” in 1953).##3D_LAYER##[1]##3D_TEXT:Establishment of temporary centers of teacher training and re-training Act (1953) (Korean).##3D_LINK:https://www.kdevelopedia.org/Resources/social-development/establishment-temporary-centers-teacher-training-re-training-act-1953--kore--05201601130142955.do?fldIds=TP_SOC|TP_SOC_ED#.VpYD9NKqmy0##3D_LAYER_END## Graduates of normal schools were granted teaching certificates upon completion of upper secondary school. So were graduates of high schools who completed an 18-week course at a training center. In 1961, all normal schools were upgraded to two-year teachers colleges; which were later upgraded to four-year institutions, National Universities of Education between 1981 and 1984##3D_LAYER##[2]##3D_TEXT:Kim and Han (2010) OECD Review on Evaluation and Assessment Frameworks for Improving School Outcomes: Country Background Report for Korea.##3D_LINK:https://www.kdevelopedia.org/Resources/social-development/oecd-review-evaluation-assessment-frameworks-improving-school-outcomes--04201601190143116.do?fldIds=TP_SOC|TP_SOC_ED#.Vp8OEJqLSiM##3D_LAYER_END##; 92.7 percent of elementary school teachers had a below normal school academic background as of 1966.##3D_LAYER##[3]##3D_TEXT:Chung, T. S. (1966) Problems facing the enhancement of the status of teachers in Korea.##3D_LINK:https://www.kdevelopedia.org/Resources/social-development/problems-facing-enhancement-status-teachers-korea--05201601130142956.do?fldIds=TP_SOC|TP_SOC_ED#.VpYEBtKqmy0##3D_LAYER_END##



Seoul National University (SNU) was newly established in 1946 with 11 constituent colleges including that of education and a graduate school.##3D_LAYER##[4]##3D_TEXT:Adam, D. (1965) Higher Educational Reforms in the Republic of Korea, p.5.##3D_LINK:https://www.kdevelopedia.org/Resources/social-development/higher-educational-reforms-republic-korea--05201510010140159.do?fldIds=TP_SOC|TP_SOC_ED#.VpdE1tKqmy0##3D_LAYER_END## SNU worked as one of the key institutions to retraining of in-service teachers, and of vocational education. Educational administration training center for principals and educational supervisors, and “reorientation” center for teachers were also set up in teachers’ college of SNU to improve the quality of teachers.



In addition, to train secondary school teachers, ##LINK_POPUP##colleges of education##MAINTITLE:Colleges of education##TITLE:##CONTENT:The college of education is pre-service teacher training course which is set up and operated independently in comprehensive universities. This type of college usually has multiple departments of teacher education for specific subjects such as Korean, English, Mathematics, history, sports, art etc. Upon graduating, students are awarded with grade II teacher certificate for secondary schools. Before 1991, those graduates from colleges of education in national comprehensive universities had the priority to be employed in public secondary schools, which was ruled to be unconstitutional by the Constitutional Court 1990. (revised from KEDI [2002])##SOURCE:KEDI (2002). Attracting, developing and retaining effective teachers: OECD Background Report for Korea. OR 2002-8.##LINK:https://www.kdevelopedia.org/Resources/social-development/attracting-developing-retaining-effective-teachers--05201407230133203.do?fldIds=TP_SOC|TP_SOC_ED#.Vpc4r9Kqmy0##LINK_POPUP_END## were established in Seoul National University and Kyungbuk National University and one independent teachers’college, or Kongju Teachers’ College in 1962 and there were many departments in universities teaching pedagogies and specialized subjects.##3D_LAYER##[5]##3D_TEXT:Paik, H. K. (1963) The present status of education.##3D_LINK:https://www.kdevelopedia.org/Resources/social-development/present-status-education--05201601130142958.do?fldIds=TP_SOC|TP_SOC_ED#.VpYEK9Kqmy0##3D_LAYER_END## From 1963, those who completed teacher training courses in general universities, and who finished ##LINK_POPUP##graduate schools of education##MAINTITLE:Graduate school of education##TITLE:##CONTENT:Graduate school of education plays both functions of initial teacher training and in-service training. Even though those who did not take any education related courses in undergraduate, any college graduates can acquire secondary school teacher certificate by attending and graduating from graduate school of education. Concerning in-service training, both elementary and secondary school teachers can receive education to deepen their professional knowledge, paying tuition fee for themselves. Upon graduating, a master’s degree is awarded, which can be added to the extra credits for promotion.(revised from KEDI [2002])##SOURCE:KEDI (2002). Attracting, developing and retaining effective teachers: OECD Background Report for Korea. OR 2002-8.##LINK:https://www.kdevelopedia.org/Resources/social-development/attracting-developing-retaining-effective-teachers--05201407230133203.do?fldIds=TP_SOC|TP_SOC_ED#.Vpc4r9Kqmy0##LINK_POPUP_END## could acquire the certificate. The university graduates whose majors were related with industries were also entitled to teacher certificates from 1963, and many private universities were authorized to operate teachers’ colleges in 1965, to prepare students for teaching in secondary schools.



B. Retaining and Remuneration  



The Basic Education Law enacted in 1949 stated special socio-economic treatment for teachers, and the Public Educational Official Act in 1953 defined status, qualification, service, salaries, and pension. These legal institutions materialized a salary table for teachers independent from that of other public officials. They were also guaranteed their personnel status as public officials, could enjoy job security before retirement, and were to be protected from unfair enforcement of law. The status of teachers as public officials contributed to job security, and also helped the government dispatch them even to remote areas. Owing to this system, the students in islands or other isolated areas could also benefit from mandatory schooling. In addition, with the enactment of pension for public officials in 1962, school teachers in public schools could benefit from the system, which was followed by the adoption of pension for private school teachers in 1973. 



C. Working Conditions



However, teachers had to endure overcrowded classroom and other unfavorable working conditions. They had to manage two or three shifts of class every day. Even worse, the salary was not competitive either. According to a survey done by the ##LINK_POPUP##Korean Federation of Teacher's Associations (KFTA)##MAINTITLE:Korean Federation of Teacher's Associations (KFTA)##TITLE:##CONTENT:KFTA was originally established on November 23rd, 1947 as the Chosun Education Association. As the largest and most traditional professional organization the KFTA has contributed to accomplish quality public education and teacher's professionalism. The KFTA has 17 metropolitan and provincial federations of teachers' associations, and 26 functional and affiliated organizations that present a united Korean educational focus on such following activities as: Solidarity Reinforcement, Collective Bargaining with the Government; Protection of Teachers' Prestige and Authority; Research and Development on Educational Policy; Supportive Programs for Teachers' Professionalism and so on.##SOURCE:KFTA official website.##LINK:https://www.kfta.or.kr##LINK_POPUP_END##,##3D_LAYER##[6]##3D_TEXT:KFEA (1963) Organizations for teaching profession.##3D_LINK:https://www.kdevelopedia.org/Resources/social-development/organizations-teaching-profession--05201601130142959.do?fldIds=TP_SOC|TP_SOC_ED#.VpYEN9Kqmy0##3D_LAYER_END## in the early 1960s, the salary of elementary school teachers (KRW 6,220, about US$ 22) was only a half of their required monthly expenditure in Seoul about KRW 12,270. The salaries for middle school teachers, KRW 7,690 and for high school ones, KRW 8,860 also forced them run into debt every month. This matter was a cause for concern not only to teachers but also policy-makers.##3D_LAYER##[7]##3D_TEXT:1) Korean Central Education Research Institute (1965) Korean Education and Foreign Assistance Programs.##3D_LINK:https://www.kdevelopedia.org/Resources/social-development/koreeducation-foreign-assistance-programs--05201601130142961.do?fldIds=TP_SOC|TP_SOC_ED#.VpYERNKqmy0##3D_TEXT:2) Chung, T. S. (1966) Problems facing the enhancement of the status of teachers in Korea.##3D_LINK:https://www.kdevelopedia.org/Resources/social-development/problems-facing-enhancement-status-teachers-korea--05201601130142956.do?fldIds=TP_SOC|TP_SOC_ED#.VpYEUdKqmy0##3D_LAYER_END##



D. International Cooperation for Capacity-Building for Teacher 



At the early stage of the development, the international development cooperation did play important roles in building capacity of teachers and teacher training. George Peabody Project was one of the well-known programs. ##MORE_LAYER##

From 1956 to 1962, George Peabody College for Teachers provided Korea's Ministry of Education and schools with the technical assistance in cooperation with the International Cooperation Administration, the United States Mission to Korea. The college sent American educators to Korea to work on programs to improve teacher education including pre- and in-service training, curriculum and textbook development, educational research, library science etc. 39 advisors or consultants stayed in Korea about two years in Seoul National University, Yonsei University, several other teachers’ colleges, attached schools and other normal schools as well. The program also sent 82 Korean teachers, school principals, supervisors, and researchers to the college for training or scholarship courses.##3D_LAYER##[8]##3D_TEXT:1) George Peabody College for Teachers (1959) George Peabody college for teachers Korean project: Improvement of teacher training.##3D_LINK:https://www.kdevelopedia.org/Resources/social-development/george-peabody-college-teachers-koreproject--05201509200140005.do?fldIds=TP_SOC|TP_SOC_ED#.VpdHDNKqmy0##3D_TEXT:2) George Peabody College for Teachers (1962) George Peabody College for teachers Korean project: Improvement of teacher training.##3D_LINK:https://www.kdevelopedia.org/Resources/social-development/george-peabody-college-teachers-koreproject--05201510010140152.do?fldIds=TP_SOC|TP_SOC_ED#.VpdGcNKqmy0##3D_TEXT:3) Kim (2012) Post-war U.S. international education cooperation in Korea, 1956-1962 : a case of Peabody Project.##3D_LINK:https://www.kdevelopedia.org/Resources/social-development/post-war-us-international-education-cooperation-kore1956-1962--05201601130142962.do?fldIds=TP_SOC|TP_SOC_ED#.VpYEfNKqmy0##3D_TEXT:4) Mc Ginn et al. (1980) Education and development in Korea : Studies in the modernization of the Republic of Korea 1945-1975.##3D_LINK:https://www.kdevelopedia.org/Resources/economy/education-development-korea--04201310310128762.do?fldIds=TP_ECO%20TP_ECO_EC%20TP_ECO_EA%20TP_SOC%20TP_SOC_ED#.VpXyzdKqmy2##3D_LAYER_END## This program nurtured many national and local educational leaders, who actively transformed and modernized its educational system.