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The Development Period (in 1970s and 1980s)

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The Development Period (in 1970s and 1980s)06



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Title The Development Period (in 1970s and 1980s)
Similar Titles
Material Type Reports
Date 2015
Language Korean
File Type Theme
Subject Social Development < Education

Abstract

A. Pre-service Education and Recruitment 



Supply and Demand Plan of Teachers

 
To effectively manage the teacher policy, the government started to forecast supply and demand of teachers in a more systematic way. It is comparatively easier for elementary schools in Korea, but the open certificate system, altering advancement rates, and a variety of subjects make the case of secondary schools very difficult. However, in spite of these difficulties, basic studies on the supply and demand of teachers by provinces, by school levels, and by subjects, have been yearly implemented. The report titled Long-term Plan for the Supply of and Demand for Teachers in 1972, and in 1985, prepared by Korean Educational Development Institute (KEDI) were representative studies on this issue.##3D_LAYER##[1]##3D_TEXT:2) KEDI (1985) Long-term plan of the supply and demand for elementary and secondary teachers: 1986–2001. (in Korean).##3D_LINK:https://www.kdevelopedia.org/Resources/social-development/%EC%9E%A5%EA%B8%B0-%EA%B5%90%EC%9B%90-%EC%88%98%EA%B8%89-%EA%B3%84%ED%9A%8D-1986-2001-long-term-plfor-supply-demand-elementary-secondary-teachers-1986-2001--04201509170139989.do?fldIds=TP_SOC|TP_SOC_ED#.Vp8orZqLSiM##3D_LAYER_END## The estimation have given key information to provincial governments and students who preparing teacher recruitment examination. ##MORE_LAYER##

The estimation procedure is as follows:-

1) The total number of teachers demanded for the year is estimated by dividing the number of estimated students of the year by number of teachers. The government enactment used to declare student and teacher ratio, but now provincial education offices set up their own ratio.

2) The size of new recruitment is estimated by calculating the retired, expected, and the change of number of teacher quota, which needs to be negotiated with Ministry of Finance and Ministry of Home Affairs, which control national budgets and total number of public officials.

3) The estimation of teacher supply by adding up the number of certificates to be granted.

4) Fixing the number of newly recruited teachers by educational offices and by subjects, and fine-tuning of student quota in preparation institutions. ##MORE_LAYER_END##



Actual Supply and Demand



The increase of certificate granting universities solved the teacher shortage by the late 1960s, but it simultaneously produced the problem of oversupply of teacher candidates. Many graduates from teacher colleges did not find teaching jobs; therefore five such colleges were merged with others. As the figure shows, in case of elementary schools, the new recruitment hit the peak at the end of 1960s, which was supplied by teacher training centers and teachers’ colleges. After the abolishment of training centers and restructuring of teachers’ college in 1970s, the supply and demand of teachers were coordinated in a more stable manner, and the ratio stayed around 1.2 in 1980s and 1990s. Meanwhile, the two-year junior colleges of elementary teacher education were upgraded to a four-year university program from 1981.



Of secondary schools the teachers increased rapidly in 1970s and 1980s as a consequence of expansion of elementary schools in 1960s. With the oversupply of prospective teachers for secondary schools, graduates from national universities were given priority over those from private universities by the decree in 1973. Later the requirements for teacher certification were strengthened from 1982, which made some of the graduates unable to take the examination for teachers after their graduations. However, the sharp increase in certificate granting institutions from 1980s could not be controlled by the government or the colleges, either, and made the competition fiercer. The ratio went up to as high as 5.7 in 1986 and 7.6 in 1998. Many of certificate holders failed to be employed as a teacher, which evoked disputes about teacher training system. 


[Figure] New Recruitment of Teachers






[Source: MOE, Statistical Yearbook, various years]




B. Retaining and Remuneration



The rapid economic growth created more well-paid jobs in private sectors, and many teachers left the profession for other jobs, notwithstanding the increase of the certificate-holders. The turnover rate was as high as 7.0 percent for elementary schools, 10.8 percent for middle schools, and 10.3 percent for vocational high schools in 1970##3D_LAYER##[2]##3D_TEXT:Lee, C. J. (2008) Education in the Republic of Korea: Approaches, Achievements, and Current Challenges.##3D_LINK:https://www.kdevelopedia.org/Resources/social-development/education-republic-korea--04201601190143114.do?fldIds=TP_SOC|TP_SOC_ED#.Vp8N4JqLSiM##3D_LAYER_END##, and these trends lasted till the late 1970s. The government still had to design better incentives to retain talented teachers. The government continuously raised the salary for public officials as well as teachers to balance rising price levels. In addition, the equalization policy of middle school from 1968 and high school from 1974 helped improve the status of private school teachers by subsidization of their salary from the government. From 1985 the salary of elementary school teachers was raised and paid on level with secondary ones. The KFEA proposed various measures to improve the treatment for teachers, which resulted in the legislation of Special Act on the Improvement of Teachers’ Status in 1991.##3D_LAYER##[3]##3D_TEXT:Korea Ministry of Government Legislation.##3D_LINK:https://www.kdevelopedia.org/Resources/government-law/koreministry-government-legislation--05201601130142963.do?fldIds=TP_GOV|TP_GOV_LA#.VpYEitKqmy0##3D_LAYER_END## 



C. Foreign Support to Upgrade Teacher Quality



As the economy grew more industrialized from the 1960s, the quantitative expansion of manpower itself was not enough to meet the demands from industries. Especially vocational and technical education in secondary schools was found too academic and remote from actual demands of business. To upgrade the quality teachers of vocational schools, the government requested assistance and loans from international communities. ##MORE_LAYER##

For example, the credit agreement between Korea and International Development Association in 1969 included the construction and equipment for technical, agricultural, commercial, and comprehensive high schools, four university teacher training departments, technical assistance and fellowship for trainers. You can see more detailed information about the education projects in Korea in the World Bank report or the actual loan agreement of 1969 between Korean government and International Development Association.##3D_LAYER##[4]##3D_TEXT:1) World Bank (1969a) Appraisal of an education project in Korea.##3D_LINK:https://www.kdevelopedia.org/Resources/social-development/appraisal-education-project-korea--04201601200143118.do?fldIds=TP_SOC|TP_SOC_ED#.Vp8kIZqLSiM##3D_TEXT:2) World Bank (1969b) Development Credit Agreement (Education Project).##3D_LINK:https://www.kdevelopedia.org/Resources/social-development/development-credit-agreement-education-project-between-republic-koreinternational-development-assosication--04201601200143119.do?fldIds=TP_SOC|TP_SOC_ED#.Vp8kMpqLSiM##3D_TEXT:3) MOFAT (2016) Development Credit Agreement (Education Project) between the Republic of Korea and International Development Association.##3D_LINK:https://www.kdevelopedia.org/Resources/social-development/development-credit-agreement-education-project-between-republic-koreinternational-development-association_mofat--05201601200143117.do?fldIds=TP_SOC|TP_SOC_ED#.Vp8kMJqLSiM##3D_LAYER_END## ##MORE_LAYER_END##