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The Transition Period (after 1990s)

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The Transition Period (after 1990s)06



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Title The Transition Period (after 1990s)
Similar Titles
Material Type Reports
Date 2015
Language Korean
File Type Theme
Subject Social Development < Education

Abstract

[Section A]



A. Pre-service Education and Recruitment



Current Pre-service Education System

 
As results of continuous adjustments, there are several types of pre-service teacher education programs in Korea. In case of elementary schools, most of the teachers are educated in the ten ##LINK_POPUP##National Universities of Education##MAINTITLE:National Universities of Education##TITLE:##CONTENT:National University of Education (NUE) is a teacher education institution established for the purpose of training elementary school teachers. All ten of them (Seoul NUE, Gyeongin NUE, Pusan NUE, Taegue NUE, Gwangju NUE, Gongju NUE, Chonju NUE, Chinju NUE, Cheongju NUE, Chuncheon NUE) are national founded by the central government. They had been two-year colleges until 1981, when they were upgraded to four-year universities to enhance the quality of teaching force. Each of them has been running affiliated elementary school for the purpose of practicum. (revised from KEDI[2002])##SOURCE:KEDI (2002). Attracting, developing and retaining effective teachers: OECD Background Report for Korea. OR 2002-8.##LINK:https://www.kdevelopedia.org/Resources/social-development/attracting-developing-retaining-effective-teachers--05201407230133203.do?fldIds=TP_SOC|TP_SOC_ED#.Vpc4r9Kqmy0##LINK_POPUP_END##, which are dedicated for training of elementary school teachers in each province, and constitute about 93 percent of new candidates. In addition, the ##LINK_POPUP##Korea National University of Education##MAINTITLE:Korea National University of Education (KNUE)##TITLE:##CONTENT:KNUE, established in 1984 by presidential decree, is a unique university of teacher education collectively training prospective teachers of kindergarten, primary school, and secondary school teachers. It also provides in-service teacher education and conducts comprehensive educational research.##SOURCE:KNUE official website (English).##LINK:http://en.knue.ac.kr/##LINK_POPUP_END##, Jeju National University, and Ewha Women University have departments for elementary school education.


For secondary school teachers, there are more paths to achieve the certificates. For undergraduates, one can enroll in ##LINK_POPUP##colleges of education##MAINTITLE:Colleges of education##TITLE:##CONTENT:The college of education is pre-service teacher training course which is set up and operated independently in comprehensive universities. This type of college usually has multiple departments of teacher education for specific subjects such as Korean, English, Mathematics, history, sports, art etc. Upon graduating, students are awarded with grade II teacher certificate for secondary schools. Before 1991, those graduates from colleges of education in national comprehensive universities had the priority to be employed in public secondary schools, which was ruled to be unconstitutional by the Constitutional Court 1990. (revised from KEDI [2002])##SOURCE:KEDI (2002). Attracting, developing and retaining effective teachers: OECD Background Report for Korea. OR 2002-8.##LINK:https://www.kdevelopedia.org/Resources/social-development/attracting-developing-retaining-effective-teachers--05201407230133203.do?fldIds=TP_SOC|TP_SOC_ED#.Vpc4r9Kqmy0##LINK_POPUP_END## or departments of education opened in general universities, or take teacher preparation courses in the universities where those courses are offered. By finishing ##LINK_POPUP##graduate schools of education##MAINTITLE:Graduate school of education##TITLE:##CONTENT:Graduate school of education plays both functions of initial teacher training and in-service training. Even though those who did not take any education related courses in undergraduate, any college graduates can acquire secondary school teacher certificate by attending and graduating from graduate school of education. Concerning in-service training, both elementary and secondary school teachers can receive education to deepen their professional knowledge, paying tuition fee for themselves. Upon graduating, a master’s degree is awarded, which can be added to the extra credits for promotion.(revised from KEDI [2002])##SOURCE:KEDI (2002). Attracting, developing and retaining effective teachers: OECD Background Report for Korea. OR 2002-8.##LINK:https://www.kdevelopedia.org/Resources/social-development/attracting-developing-retaining-effective-teachers--05201407230133203.do?fldIds=TP_SOC|TP_SOC_ED#.Vpc4r9Kqmy0##LINK_POPUP_END##, one can also receive the certificates. As of 2015, there were 46 universities operating colleges of education, 14 universities with department of education, which constitute about 32 percent of would-be teachers; 22 percent of them are enrolling in teacher preparation courses in 152 universities. The rest of them attend any of the 112 graduate schools of education.


The directory of teaching certificate granting institutions gives detailed information about the courses being operated.##3D_LAYER##[1]##3D_TEXT:Ministry of Education (2015) Status of teacher training institutes in Korea (2015).##3D_LINK:https://www.kdevelopedia.org/Resources/social-development/status-teacher-training-institutes-kore-2015--05201601130142967.do?fldIds=TP_SOC|TP_SOC_ED#.VpYE4tKqmy0##3D_LAYER_END##  The undergraduate teacher education programs all offer four-year coursework comprised of a curriculum of subject-area content and pedagogical theory. You can see more detailed information about the curriculum and required credits in the report##3D_LAYER##[2]##3D_TEXT:Ingersoll, R. M. (2007) A Comparative Study of Teacher Preparation and Qualifications in Six Nations, p.59-62. Consortium for Policy Research in Education.##3D_LINK:https://www.kdevelopedia.org/Resources/social-development/comparative-study-teacher-preparation-qualifications-six-nations--05201601130142969.do?fldIds=TP_SOC|TP_SOC_ED#.VpYE79Kqmy0##3D_LAYER_END## in English or in the updated manual posted by MOE in Korean.


Student who completed four years of coursework with bachelor’s degree are eligible to apply for a teacher certificate. However, some of those who completed teacher education programs fail to achieve it. It is awarded to those whose average score of teaching subjects is 80 or above out of 100, and to those who pass the aptitude and personal character test at least twice before their graduation.##3D_LAYER##[3]##3D_TEXT:Ministry of Education (2015) Status of teacher qualification in Korea (2015).##3D_LINK:https://www.kdevelopedia.org/Resources/social-development/status-teacher-qualification-kore-2015--05201601130142970.do?fldIds=TP_SOC|TP_SOC_ED#.VpYE_tKqmy0##3D_LAYER_END## They are issued a certificate of Grade II, which can be upgraded to Grade I after three years of teaching practice and additional 15 credit hours of in-service training. There is no age restriction for certificate acquisition.

 

Open Competition for Teacher Recruitment



All those who want to be a teacher should take the ##LINK_POPUP##employment examination##MAINTITLE:Employment Examination##TITLE:##CONTENT:The employment examination for public school teachers has been administered by each metropolitan or provincial office of education. The exam tests subject matter knowledge and pedagogy, teaching demonstration, and an in-depth interview. Usually the exam is executed in two folds. At the first phase, examinees take essay test of pedagogy and short-answer items of curriculum, which replaced multiple-choice from 2012. The second phase is composed of group discussion, individual interview, and teaching demonstration.##LINK_POPUP_END##. Graduates of national teacher training institutions had to compete with those from private universities to be employed as a teacher in national and public schools from 1994. Private schools have the authority to employ their employees, but they have been encouraged to balance their autonomy and public accountability by following the standards of public schools.



Accreditation of Teacher Education Institutions



As the number of teacher certificate-granting institutions increased and the competition for teacher recruitment has become fiercer, consequently, more certificate holders failed to become teachers. In response, from 1998 the ministry addressed the evaluation system on teacher training colleges, and those which failed to meet certain standards had to reduce their quota of certificate numbers. Managed by KEDI, the evaluation evolved into the accreditation system, which reviews all teacher education institutions every three or five year and grades them with five ratings. The evaluation covers the areas of teaching environment, curriculum, outcome, and specialization of each institution. More specifically, the key criteria include: ratio of the number of students per faculty, composition of faculties majoring in subject-specific pedagogy to strengthen professional education; curriculum to meet the national standards; and percentage of graduates employed as regular teachers.##3D_LAYER##[4]##3D_TEXT:Kim et al. (2009) Secondary Teacher Policy Research in Asia: Secondary education and teacher quality in the Republic of Korea. UNESCO.##3D_LINK:https://www.kdevelopedia.org/Resources/social-development/secondary-teacher-policy-research-asia--05201601130142971.do?fldIds=TP_SOC|TP_SOC_ED#.VpYFDNKqmy0##3D_LAYER_END##  The results of the evaluation are sent to the individual institutes and are open to the public, with the intention of improving quality. The institutions which are granted with grade of failure have to cut down their student population or are banned from conferring the certificates on their graduates. The institutions with excellent results are entitled to more autonomy, research grant, and other financial and administrative incentives.##3D_LAYER##[5]##3D_TEXT:National Evaluation Center for Teacher Training Institutions (Korean website)##3D_LINK:https://www.kdevelopedia.org/Resources/social-development/national-evaluation-center-teacher-training-institutions-korewebsite--05201601130142972.do?fldIds=TP_SOC|TP_SOC_ED#.VpYFHNKqmy0##3D_LAYER_END##



B. Retaining and Remuneration



The comparison of relative salary of teachers with other workers in same conditions shows that in most of other countries, teachers are paid less than other professions, except some countries such as Spain and New Zealand. But in Korea teachers are paid 1.36 times more than workers with same career, ages, and gender in other professions, which partially explains why the teaching profession is still attractive.##3D_LAYER##[6]##3D_TEXT:Han, Y. (2001) 한국의 교원보수정책 평가(The policies and structures of teacher salaries in Korea).##3D_LINK:https://www.kdevelopedia.org/Resources/social-development/%ED%95%9C%EA%B5%AD%EC%9D%98-%EA%B5%90%EC%9B%90%EB%B3%B4%EC%88%98%EC%A0%95%EC%B1%85-%ED%8F%89%EA%B0%80-policies-structures-teacher-salaries-kore--05201601160143030.do?fldIds=TP_SOC|TP_SOC_ED#.Vpsu5ZqLSiM##3D_LAYER_END##



[Table] teachers’ salaries relative to other jobs (2012)















































  Korea Germany US UK Italy Spain France Finland
Elementary 1.36 0.88 0.67 0.86 0.60 1.20 0.72 0.89
Lower secondary 1.36 0.97 0.68 0.95 0.65 1.30 0.86 0.97
Upper secondary 1.36 1.05 0.70 0.95 0.69 1.35 0.95 1.09

Note: Teachers’ salaries relative to earnings for full-time, full-year workers with tertiary education, broken down by age groups and gender.However, the numbers of students per class in Korea are still higher than those in other advanced countries. The crowded classroom hinders enhancing the quality of education and working conditions of teachers.

Source: OECD (2014). Education at a Glance.##3D_LAYER##[7]##3D_TEXT:OECD (2014) Education at a Glance (Data tables for The Learning Environment and Organization of Schools (Chapter D), pp.427-534).##3D_LINK:https://www.kdevelopedia.org/Resources/social-development/education-at-glance-2014--05201601130142973.do?fldIds=TP_SOC|TP_SOC_ED#.VpYFJtKqmy0##3D_LAYER_END##



However, the numbers of students per class in Korea are still higher than those in other advanced countries. The crowded classroom hinders enhancing the quality of education and working conditions of teachers.



[Table] Average class size (2012)




































  Korea Germany US UK Italy Spain France Finland
Elementary 25 21 21 25 19 21 23 19
Lower secondary 33 24 27 19 22 24 25 20

Note: Calculations based on number of students and number of classes. 

Source: OECD (2014). Education at a Glance.



##PAGE##
[Section B]



C. Professional Development



Promotion and Teacher Appraisal for Performance

 
After the first establishment of regulation on promotion of educational public officials in 1964, Korean Teacher Promotion System became a certificate system based on a hierarchical organization structure, composed of Grade II and I regular teachers, vice principals, and principals. Regular teachers with Grade II certificates could be promoted to Grade I after their three-year teaching and completion of qualification training. To become either a school vice principal or principal, regular teachers had to be listed on the candidates for the qualification training, based upon the scores of service year, performance appraisal, in-service training, and additional credits. It usually took around 20 years for Grade II teachers to get a vice principal certificate and approximately 25 years to obtain a principal certificate.##3D_LAYER##[8]##3D_TEXT:Shin and Jeon (2007) The Analysis of Teacher Promotion System from the Perspective of Historical New Institutionalism.##3D_LINK:https://www.kdevelopedia.org/Resources/social-development/analysis-teacher-promotion-system-perspective-historical-new-institutionalism--05201601130142974.do?fldIds=TP_SOC|TP_SOC_ED#.VpYFM9Kqmy0##3D_LAYER_END##

 

Among them, Teacher Appraisal for Performance is critical factor. In order to be on the top of the list, a teacher must acquire a minimum of 70 points on teaching experience, 100 points on work performance evaluation, and 30 points on training outcomes. Additional points may be gained through other means. Because work-performance evaluation takes up the biggest part in the promotion scores, teachers are very eager to achieve good results on performance appraisal.##3D_LAYER##[9]##3D_TEXT:KEDI (2010) OECD Review on Evaluation and Assessment Frameworks for Improving School Outcomes: Country Background Report for Korea, p.51.##3D_LINK:https://www.kdevelopedia.org/Resources/social-development/oecd-review-evaluation-assessment-frameworks-improving-school-outcomes--04201601190143116.do?fldIds=TP_SOC|TP_SOC_ED#.Vp8cJpqLSiM##3D_LAYER_END## But the decrease of students and schools in 2000s has resulted in tough competition for the promotion. And this promotion practice by seniority has been questioned seriously, but it turned out to be very difficult to change the rule.

 

Teacher Appraisal for Professional Development

 
The Teacher Appraisal for Professional Development was firstly adopted as a pilot project in 2005, and implemented as a full-fledged national level policy since 2010. Enactment Decree of Teacher Training of February 2011, states that the Minster and Superintendents of education should appraise school teachers to examine their capabilities for the purpose of selecting persons who need reeducation or training.##3D_LAYER##[10]##3D_TEXT:Legislation regarding teacher training (Korean). Korea Ministry of Government Legislation.##3D_LINK:https://www.kdevelopedia.org/Resources/social-development/legislation-regarding-teacher-training-kore--05201601130142977.do?fldIds=TP_SOC|TP_SOC_ED#.VpYFU9Kqmy0##3D_LAYER_END## The appraisal needs to be done by means of peer review by their colleagues and satisfaction surveys from students and parents. Teachers are to be evaluated by their student guidance capabilities in learning and school life. For principals and vice principals, their school management ability is to be evaluated, and for master teachers, their supporting capability of teaching and research for other teachers is to be evaluated.

 

Their leadership and capabilities are rated from one to five by peer teachers, students of the third grade above, and their parents. The Minister or Superintendents are supposed to notify the results to individual teachers, and to select some of under-performing teachers for their reeducation and training. The teachers with excellent performance reviews are entitled to extra credits for sabbaticals. Most of teachers make use of the results for professional development. In addition, the average scores of the evaluation should be made available at schools through school information disclosure system.



##LINK_POPUP##In-Service Education##MAINTITLE:In-service Education (Professional Development)##TITLE:##CONTENT:The Offices of Education have managed professional development programs or in-service education for teachers. These include training for qualifications, as well as in-service training and special training in areas such as information digitalization or curriculum formation. In-service programs take place over at least 180 hours (30 days); teacher performance is assessed on a 100-point scale and teachers who complete a program earn a certificate, which can enhance their promotion and wage prospects. In order to encourage teachers to take advantage of professional development opportunities, credit hours completed can help enhance a teacher’s promotion prospects. However, teachers are not required to complete the programs, and can still be promoted without having done so. Principals can provide teachers with professional development support by recommending particular programs and using school funding to subsidize a portion of the training expense. (accessed at NCEE, 2015) ##SOURCE:NCEE (2015) Teacher and Principal Quality in South Korea.##LINK:https://www.kdevelopedia.org/Resources/social-development/teacher-principal-quality-south-korea--05201601130142978.do?fldIds=TP_SOC|TP_SOC_ED#.VpYFXdKqmy0##LINK_POPUP_END##

 
The Offices of Education have managed professional development programs or in-service education for teachers, including training for qualifications, in-service training, and special training in areas such as information digitalization or curriculum formation. In-service programs take place over at least 180 hours (30 days); teacher performance is assessed on a 100-point scale and teachers who complete a program earn a certificate, which can enhance their promotion and wage prospects. In order to encourage teachers to take advantage of professional development opportunities, credit hours completed can help enhance a teacher’s promotion prospects. However, teachers are not required to complete the programs, and can still be promoted without having done so. Principals can provide teachers with professional development support by recommending particular programs and using school funding to subsidize a portion of the training expense.##3D_LAYER##[11]##3D_TEXT:NCEE (2015) Teacher and Principal Quality in South Korea.##3D_LINK:https://www.kdevelopedia.org/Resources/social-development/teacher-principal-quality-south-korea--05201601130142978.do?fldIds=TP_SOC|TP_SOC_ED#.VpYFXdKqmy0##3D_LAYER_END##