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Role of the Government: Establishment of the Forest Reclamation Policy and Efficient Execution of the Policy

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Role of the Government: Establishment of the Forest Reclamation Policy and Efficient Execution of the Policy06



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Title Role of the Government: Establishment of the Forest Reclamation Policy and Efficient Execution of the Policy
Similar Titles
Material Type Reports
Date 2015
Language Korean
File Type Theme
Subject Territorial Development < National Land Development

Abstract

In Korea, government played the main role in ##3D_LAYER##forest reclamation##3D_TEXT:1) Chung, C-S. (2008). Reforestation.##3D_LINK:https://www.kdevelopedia.org/Resources/territorial-development/reforestation--04201301290124722.do?fldIds=TP_TER|TP_TER_EN#.V4RQ0tKLSUm##3D_TEXT:2) Shin et al. (2007). Forest restoration in Korea.##3D_LINK:https://www.kdevelopedia.org/Resources/territorial-development/forest-restoration-korea--05201603150143752.do?fldIds=TP_TER|TP_TER_EN#.V4RRCtKLSUn##3D_TEXT:3) Park and Youn (2013). Policy integration for reforestation in the Republic of Korea.##3D_LINK:https://www.kdevelopedia.org/Resources/territorial-development/policy-integration-reforestation-republic-korea--05201603150143756.do?fldIds=TP_TER|TP_TER_EN#.V4RRTdKLSUl##3D_TEXT:4) Park, M. S. (2015). Inter-Korean forest cooperation 1998–2012.##3D_LINK:https://www.kdevelopedia.org/Resources/territorial-development/inter-koreforest-cooperation-1998%E2%80%932012--05201603150143754.do?fldIds=TP_TER|TP_TER_EN#.V4RRitKLSUl##3D_LAYER_END##. After the liberation of the country in 1945, Rhee Syng Man regime (1948~1960) failed to establish neither strong government nor enough budget for reforestation. Also, due to the Korean War which occurred soon, social chaos was quite serious, making it impossible to properly carry out the forest reclamation policy. In 1961, Park Chung Hee regime ##3D_LAYER##enacted the forest-related laws and organized##3D_TEXT:Park and Lee (2014). Forest policy and law for sustainability within the Korean Peninsula.##3D_LINK:https://www.kdevelopedia.org/Resources/territorial-development/forest-policy-law-sustainability-within-korepeninsula--05201603150143753.do?fldIds=TP_TER|TP_TER_EN|TP_GOV|TP_GOV_GE#.V4RSKNKLSUl##3D_LAYER_END## the administrative institutions one by one, while stabilizing the society. 



A. Enactment of Laws related to Forest Reclamation



The Park Chung Hee regime (1961-1979) established various laws related to the forest reclamation which had not been enacted by the Rhee Syng Man regime. The eleven related laws enacted from 1961 to 1972 are as follow:



##LINK_POPUP##Forest Products Regulation Act (1961)##MAINTITLE:Forest Products Regulation Act (1961)##TITLE:##CONTENT:Through the April 19th Revolution (1960) and  following emergence of an ephemeral government, excessive logging and unauthorized lumbering were prevalent. When the military government took over the power in May, 1961, it established in June the laws to control the unauthorized lumbering of growing trees, and the transportation of illegal forest products. Such laws included the contents for strict restriction of the lumbering of growing trees, issuance of a license for taking out forest products and the strict punishment against criminals.##LINK_POPUP_END##, ##LINK_POPUP##Forest Law (1961)##MAINTITLE:Forest Law (1961)##TITLE:##CONTENT:The Rhee Syng Man regime failed to enact the Forest Law even if it recognized the urgency for the protection of the forest over its reign of 12 years. In December, 1961 Forest Law was made for the first time by a military government. The law has become the basis of the present Forest Basic Law, and specified obligation of the national and private forests for forest management plan and designation and management of the seed production forest. Also, such corporations as the Forestry Cooperative Association, Forestry Cooperative and  Village Forestry Cooperative were stipulated, that played the most important role in the mobilization of the farmers for the forest reclamation in the 1970s.##LINK_POPUP_END##, ##LINK_POPUP##Erosion Control Act (1962)##MAINTITLE:Erosion Control Act (1962)##TITLE:##CONTENT:This act was established by the military government in January, 1962 to promote the erosion control project which had been executed since the Rhee Syng Man administration. The sites subject to the erosion control were designated by the government, while  cost and  management of  erosion control facilities were set based on the law. The barren land of total520,000 ha throughout the country in 1960 was completely recovered during the next 17 years based on the law.##LINK_POPUP_END##, ##LINK_POPUP##Temporary Act of Forest Reclamation (1963)##MAINTITLE:Temporary Act of Forest Reclamation (1963)##TITLE:##CONTENT:In February, 1963, the military government established new law in order to mobilize the necessary manpower in the form of compulsory labor for the erosion control project. The government made it legal to apply forced labor to male farmers who had not yet completed their military duty. Also, it was possible for the Forestry Cooperative Association to raise private funds for the national reforestation.##LINK_POPUP_END##, ##LINK_POPUP##Forest Protection Staff Arrangement Act (1963)##MAINTITLE:Forest Protection Staff Arrangement Act (1963)##TITLE:##CONTENT:This law made it possible to arrange the private staff for protection of the private forest with expense of the land owner, but giving judicial power for them. Based on the law, the number of staff for protection of the forest was increased by more than twice.##LINK_POPUP_END##, ##LINK_POPUP##Slash and Burn Farming Regulation Act (1966)##MAINTITLE:Slash and Burn Farming Regulation Act (1966)##TITLE:##CONTENT:This act was established in order to completely eliminate the slash and burn farming which had been practiced since the Chosun Dynasty. Base on the law, five levels of review committees, site survey, elimination order, compensation and follow-up monitoring of the burned sites were established to completely resettle the farmers. A total number of 300,000 households that engaged in the slash-and-burn farming were resettled between 1966 and 1979, making a history of complete elimination of slash-and-burn farming that had continued more than 700 years in the Korean peninsula.##LINK_POPUP_END##, ##LINK_POPUP##Wild Animal Protection & Hunting Act (1967)##MAINTITLE:Wild Animal Protection & Hunting Act (1967)##TITLE:##CONTENT:Until 1967 wild animal-related law had specified hunting restriction only. This new law included designation of the regions for protection of animals, hunting and non-hunting areas, and a committee for protection of animals. With this law, the living environment for wild animals has been improved and the number of animals also has increased greatly.##LINK_POPUP_END##, ##LINK_POPUP##Natural Park Act (1967)##MAINTITLE:Natural Park Act (1967)##TITLE:##CONTENT:The Natural Park Act designated national parks, provincial parks and city parks (county parks), starting from the first Jirisan National Park in 1967. It was established to protect the natural scenic beauty and to improve people’s health and recreation. In the parks, new construction and development projects are strictly restricted. Banning any timber harvest in the parks, beautiful natural forest is preserved as it is. Also, it makes a great contribution to the protection of animals and plants. Currently, there are 21 national parks, occupying 3.9% of the total land area.##LINK_POPUP_END##, ##LINK_POPUP##Introduction of the Greenbelt System in City Planning Act (1971)##MAINTITLE:Introduction of the Greenbelt System in City Planning Act (1971)##TITLE:##CONTENT:The city planning act was established by the military government in January, 1962, in order to regulate the imprudent development of the city. In 1971 parts of this act were amended to make it possible to designate greenbelts. As the industrialization process was actively initiated in the late 1960s, population in the city started to rapidly increase and expanded to the suburbs, causing damages to the surrounding forest. In order to prevent such imprudent expansion of the city, the government introduced the green-belt system in 1971. Through such a system, it is possible to secure undeveloped areas with the purpose of protecting the forest surrounding the city and restricting the land speculation. Therefore, it is still evaluated as a proper land use plan for the developing countries in the initial stage of development. The government designated 5.4% of the entire territory as the green-belt until 1977. The system can be regarded as the third successful case of securing the natural environment surrounding the city after London, the United Kingdom, and Ottawa, Canada.##LINK_POPUP_END##, ##LINK_POPUP##Land Use Management Act (1972)##MAINTITLE:Land Use Management Act (1972)##TITLE:##CONTENT:This act was established to efficiently plan and manage the national territory with a land use plan. The land use and enforcement plan classified the national territory into farming, forest, industrial, natural and cultural-asset preservation lands. The forest region was divided into forest preservation region (forest for wood production and prevention of natural disasters) and cultivation region (the region exclusively used for agriculture and construction). Any changes regarding the land use in such a region was strictly restricted.##LINK_POPUP_END##, ##LINK_POPUP##Forest Development Act (1972)##MAINTITLE:Forest Development Act (1972)##TITLE:##CONTENT:This act was introduced in 1972 to promote the innovative development of the forest resources. By establishing a forest management corporation, large scale planting and efficient forest management were attempted. Also, by forming the funds for the development of the forest, long-term loans were made to the forest land owners at a low interest rate. This kind of loan was the first of its kind in the forestry. It was quite helpful for the forest land owners and the ardent foresters, making it possible to carry out large scale planting in the private forest. This project was abolished after the ambitious First Ten-Year Forest Rehabilitation Plan in 1973.##LINK_POPUP_END##.



Among such laws and acts, the Forest Law in 1961 is the most important law which became the basis for the current forest law. Based on the law, the planting and the management of the national and private forests became institutionalized. Also, specific measures to prohibit destruction of the forest were provided. In particular, by making the Village Forestry Cooperative a public corporation, it was possible to promote a high level of participation of residents of the farm villages in the reforestation project. Also, with the Erosion Control Act, denuded forest land was reclaimed. Furthermore, Slash-and-Burn Farming Regulation Act made it possible to get rid of all the slash-and-burn fields, while ##3D_LAYER##greenbelt system##3D_TEXT:1) Benston and Youn (2005). Seouls greenbelt: An experiment in urban containment.##3D_LINK:https://www.kdevelopedia.org/Resources/territorial-development/seoul-s-greenbelt--05201603150143755.do?fldIds=TP_TER|TP_TER_EN#.V4RSndKLSUl##3D_TEXT:2) Bengston and Youn (2006). Urban containment policies and the protection of natural areas : The case of Seouls greenbelt.##3D_LINK:https://www.kdevelopedia.org/Resources/territorial-development/urbcontainment-policies-protection-natural-areas--05201603150143751.do?fldIds=TP_TER|TP_TER_EN#.V4RTUNKLSUm##3D_TEXT:3) Bae, C-H. (1998). Koreas greenbelts: Impacts and options for changes.##3D_LINK:https://www.kdevelopedia.org/Resources/territorial-development/koreas-greenbelts--05201603290143924.do?fldIds=TP_TER|TP_TER_NA|TP_TER_EN#.V4RTfdKLSUl##3D_TEXT:4) Lee and Choi (2004). Green belt policy change and uninvited aftereffect in Seoul.##3D_LINK:https://www.kdevelopedia.org/Resources/territorial-development/green-belt-policy-change-uninvited-aftereffect-seoul--05201603290143925.do?fldIds=TP_TER|TP_TER_NA|TP_TER_EN#.V4RTstKLSUk##3D_LAYER_END## was adopted to protect the forest around cities. 



B. Reorganization of the Administrative Structure



After 1961, the government attempted to recover the ruined forest by establishing various forest-related laws as shown above. However, it was difficult to stop immediately practice of collecting the fuel wood (including collection of the leaf litter) and illegal timber harvesting which had been carried out for hundreds of years. Therefore, the government realized the limit of the simple enactment of related laws and recognized the necessity for reorganization of  the forest administrative institution.



B.1) ##3D_LAYER##Establishment of the Forest Service##3D_TEXT:1) Chun, J. (2013). Mangement and conservation of mountain forests in Korea.##3D_LINK:https://www.kdevelopedia.org/Resources/territorial-development/mangement-conservation-mountain-forests-korea--05201603290143931.do?fldIds=TP_TER|TP_TER_NA|TP_TER_EN#.V4RUWdKLSUl##3D_TEXT:2) Chung, J. (2015). Korea Forest Service adds to urban greenery.##3D_LINK:https://www.kdevelopedia.org/Resources/territorial-development/koreforest-service-adds-urbgreenery--05201603290143926.do?fldIds=TP_TER|TP_TER_NA|TP_TER_EN#.V4RUl9KLSUl##3D_LAYER_END## (1967)



The government became aware of urgency of the forest reclamation. Therefore, in January, 1967, it expanded and reorganized Forest Bureau as Forest Service. With the new establishment of the Forest Service, it was possible to put fuel wood forest establishment project,  erosion control project, and  reforestation project on the right track. 



B.2) Transfer of the Forest Service to the Ministry of Home Affairs (1973)



After contemplation of the efficiency of forest reclamation, the government transferred the Forest Service from the Ministry of Agriculture to the Ministry of Home Affairs in 1973. ##MORE_LAYER_BOX##At that time, the Forest Service belonged to the Department of Agriculture, and the head of the Forest Service had to receive orders from the Minister of Agriculture. Due to urgent task of increasing food production, the Department of Agriculture sometimes carried out such policies as those related to the cultivation and the formation of grassland in the mountain slopes, which conflicted with the forest reclamation. As a result, the forest reclamation project did not fully function.##MORE_LAYER_BOX_END## The Forest Service under the Ministry of Home Affairs was directly connected to local government (provinces, counties, cities, townships) under the same Ministry and was helped by the financial support of the local government. Also it was possible to make the most of the farmers through the Saemaul (New Village) Movement which was initiated by the same Ministry and was welcomed by the farmers with much enthusiasm at that time. In addition it was possible to reinforce protection of forest by mobilizing the police force under the same Ministry. Such government’s intension was right judgment, and the forest reclamation project was chosen as the national project with great momentum.



B.3.) Establishment of the Forest Bureau and the Forest Department within the Local Government (1973)



When the Forest Service was transferred to the Ministry of Home Affairs in 1973, the government expanded  Forest Department of the provincial unit to  Forest Bureau and newly established three departments (in charge of  forest management,  tree planting, and  planting stock raising). Also, Forest Section in  cities and counties was expanded as Forest Department (Silviculture Section and Forest Protection Section), giving forest officials many opportunities for  promotion. 



C. ##3D_LAYER##Establishment & Execution of the Comprehensive Forest Reclamation Policy##3D_TEXT:Chun, J. (2013). Mangement and conservation of mountain forests in Korea.##3D_LINK:https://www.kdevelopedia.org/Resources/territorial-development/mangement-conservation-mountain-forests-korea--05201603290143931.do?fldIds=TP_TER|TP_TER_NA|TP_TER_EN#.V4RU-NKLSUl##3D_LAYER_END## 



After the transfer to the Ministry of Home Affairs in 1973, Forest Service made comprehensive long-term nationwide forest reclamation plan. The plan included not only  policies related to  tree planting,  erosion control and  forest protection, but also those related to  alternative energy supplies,  frugal use of timber and promotion of  food production in forests.



C.1.) ##3D_LAYER##The First Ten-Year Forest Rehabilitation Plan (1973~1982)##3D_TEXT:1) Chung, C-S. (2008). Reforestation. (Refer to Chapter 4).##3D_LINK:https://www.kdevelopedia.org/Resources/territorial-development/reforestation--04201301290124722.do?fldIds=TP_TER|TP_TER_EN#.V4RQ0tKLSUm##3D_TEXT:2) Yoo et al. (2014). Forest resource development in Korea. (Refer to Chapter 2-1 & 2-2).##3D_LINK:https://www.kdevelopedia.org/Resources/industry-technology/forest-resource-development-korea--04201405130131821.do?fldIds=TP_IND|TP_IND_AG|TP_TER|TP_TER_EN#.V4RWE9KLSUl##3D_LAYER_END##



The project included reforestation of 1 million ha using 2.1 billion trees in 10 years,  tending care of 3.8 million hectare (ha) and  erosion control work on  84,000 ha. The three basic directions of the plan were as follows. 

 
1) National Tree Planting: Every citizen plants trees year round with the spirit of the Saemaul (New Village) Movement through villages, working places, homes, organizations, institutions and schools.


2) Economic Planting: The tree planting and preservation of the forest are to be directly linked to the increase in nation’s income, while a new economic zone is to be established in the mountain area.


3) Fast Tree Planting: The 6.67 million ha of mountains are to be completely covered with trees resulting in green revolution. In order to complete the forest reclamation early, many fast-growing trees are to be planted.

 

Also, loggers and companies consuming much timber should plant trees, while  fuel wood forests should be established by each village to produce fuels for their own. Furthermore, erosion control project is carried out to recover large ruined regions first, and planted-tree inspection system is chosen in order to inspect in autumn the survival rate of the trees planted in spring.



[Table 2. ##3D_LAYER##Comparison between plans of the First Ten-Year Forest Rehabilitation Plan (1973-1982) and result of early completion of the plan in 1978.##3D_TEXT:[Table 2] Source:Korea Forest Serivce (1989).##3D_LINK:https://www.kdevelopedia.org/Resources/territorial-development/comparison-between-plans-first-ten-year-forest-rehabilitation-pl-1973-1982-result-early-completion-plin-1978-%EC%A0%9C1%EC%B0%A8%EC%B9%98%EC%82%B0%EB%85%B9%ED%99%9410%EA%B0%9C%EB%85%84%EA%B3%84%ED%9A%8D-1973-1982-%EC%9D%98-%EC%A1%B0%EB%A6%BC-%EC%9C%A1%EB%A6%BC-%EA%B3%84%ED%9A%8D%EA%B3%BC-1978%EB%85%84-%EB%A7%90-%EC%A1%B0%EA%B8%B0-%EC%99%84%EC%84%B1-%EC%8B%9C-%EC%8B%A4%EC%A0%81-%EB%B9%84%EA%B5%90--04201606270145092.do?fldIds=TP_TER|TP_TER_NA#.V4Nk79KLSUk##3D_LAYER_END##]
















































































Classification Plan Result Ratio

between

plan and

result (%)
Area

(Thousand ha)
Number

of Plants

(Million)
Area 

(Thousand ha)
Number 

of Plants 

(Million)
Reforestation Timber

trees
195 585 358 1,106 183
Fast-growing

trees
300 607 360 756 120
Nut trees 300 120 154 61 51
Fuel wood

forest
205 820 208 1,037 101
Total 1,000 2,132 1,080 2,960 108
Stock raising   2,132   3,054 143
Tending care 3,799   4,177   110
Erosion control 84   42   50



C.2) ##3D_LAYER##The Second Ten-Year Forest Rehabilitation Plan (1979~1988)##3D_TEXT:Yoo et al. (2014). Forest resource development in Korea. (Refer to Chapter 2-3).##3D_LINK:https://www.kdevelopedia.org/Resources/industry-technology/forest-resource-development-korea--04201405130131821.do?fldIds=TP_IND|TP_IND_AG|TP_TER|TP_TER_EN#.V4RWE9KLSUl##3D_LAYER_END##



The goal of the first Ten-Year Forest Rehabilitation Plan was accomplished within only 6 years. The Forest Service established the second ten-year plan in 1979. The Plan was adjusted twice to plant 2 billion trees in 1 million ha and for the tending care of 150,000 ha of natural forests. The basic directions of the second plan included complete greening of  un-stocked area and the areas with urgent erosion control, formation of the large-scale commercial forest complex, development and planting of native woody species,  establishment of the plan for land use, exploration of foreign forest resources, development  of the forestry technology, timely supply and export of forest products and  promotion of  public benefits of the forest.



C.3) ##3D_LAYER##The Third, Fourth and Fifth Forest Basic Planning (1988~2017)##3D_TEXT:Yoo et al. (2014). Forest resource development in Korea. (Refer to Chapter 2-4, 2-5 & 2-6).##3D_LINK:https://www.kdevelopedia.org/Resources/industry-technology/forest-resource-development-korea--04201405130131821.do?fldIds=TP_IND|TP_IND_AG|TP_TER|TP_TER_EN#.V4RWE9KLSUl##3D_LAYER_END##



The goal of the second Ten-Year Forest Rehabilitation Plan was accomplished within only 9 years. The Forest Service changed the title of the plan toForest Basic Planning (1988~1997) in 1988, establishing planting plan for 320,000 ha in 10 years. The new plan focused on establishment of large-sized commercial forest, and promotion of income sources for  mountain village,  public health, environmental function of  forest, and  preservation of biodiversity. 



The fourth Forest Basic Planning (1998~2007), emphasized creation of new jobs through tending care of forests. In particular, in order to mitigate the IMF financial crisis which started in 1998, a large scale public labor project was expanded for planting of 200,000 ha, thinning of 730,000 ha and tending care of 930,000 ha in 10 years. 



The fifth Forest Basic Planning (2008~2017) included a planting plan for 240,000 ha in 10 years. By continuously establishing commercial forest complex,  domestic wood supply would be increased and health of  forest ecosystem and green spaces for amenity be enhanced.