A. ##3D_LAYER##Reforestation Project##3D_TEXT:[Figure 5. 1974’s 42ha Japanese larch at a planatation in Cheongwon-gun, Chungcheongbuk-do.] A beautiful plantation of larch forest four years after the planting. A high survival rate of seedlings is evident after introduction of a tree inspection system. Source: Korea Saemaulundong Center (1974).##3D_LINK:https://www.kdevelopedia.org/Resources/territorial-development/1974s-42hjapanese-larch-at-plantation-cheongwon-gun-chungcheongbuk-do-%EC%B6%A9%EB%B6%81-%EC%B2%AD%EC%9B%90%EA%B5%B0-42h3%EB%85%84%EC%83%9D-%EB%82%99%EC%97%BD%EC%86%A1-74%EB%85%84-%EC%A1%B0%EB%A6%BC%EC%A7%80--01201605120144538.do?fldIds=TP_TER|TP_TER_NA#.V4NsWNKLSUk##3D_LAYER_END## (1961~1987)
The forest reclamation was carried out over the period of almost a half century. However, the most intensive tree planting and erosion control work were performed during the 27 years between 1961 and 1987. During the period of the first Ten-Year Forest Rehabilitation Plan, 2.9 billion trees were planted in 1.08 million ha in6 years by using 10 major planting tree species. During the period of the second Ten-Year Forest Rehabilitation Plan, 1.9 billion trees were planted in 960,000 ha in 9 years by using 21 major planting tree species. During these two periods, there was not enough land left for the planting trees. As a result, not all the initial goals were accomplished. However, as every bare mountain in the country was covered with trees, the forest reclamation was completed. During these periods, the total planted area reached 31% of the tota lforest (6.6 million ha)
B. Erosion Control Project (1961~1987)
The successful ##3D_LAYER##erosion control project##3D_TEXT:1) Lee (2013). Successful reforestation in South Korea: The roles of the government, village forestry cooperatives, and Saemaul movement.##3D_LINK:https://www.kdevelopedia.org/Resources/territorial-development/successful-reforestation-south-korea--04201303190125432.do?fldIds=TP_TER|TP_TER_NA|TP_TER_EN#.V4Ru7NKLSUl##3D_TEXT:2) Chung, C-S. (2008). Reforestation.##3D_LINK:https://www.kdevelopedia.org/Resources/territorial-development/reforestation--04201301290124722.do?fldIds=TP_TER|TP_TER_EN#.V4RvNNKLSUl##3D_LAYER_END## can be regarded as the result of such factors as establishment of the long-term erosion control policy by the government, active participation of farmers through the nationwide promotion and cooperation of international organizations. After the liberation, the first Rhee Syng Man administration failed to carry out the nationwide forest reclamation. However, it succeeded in recovering parts of the barren land by continuously carrying out the erosion control project.
In 1961, Park Chung Hee administration enacted Erosion Control Act in 1962. The government designated and managed the land for the erosion control project, while specifying by the law the levying costs and the management of profits, penalties and erosion control facilities. Also, utilizing the research results, government developed new techniques of mid-slope erosion control which were suitable for the local geographic conditions in Korea.
[Figure 6. ##3D_LAYER##Annual effects of erosion control works at Ulju-gun##3D_TEXT: [Figure 6] Pictures of gradual restoration after special erosion control at Uljugun in 1972 to protect the Ulsan industrial complex. Source: Korea Forest Service: ##3D_LINK:https://www.kdevelopedia.org/Resources/territorial-development/annual-effects-erosion-control-works-at-ulju-gun-%EC%82%AC%EB%B0%A9%EA%B3%B5%EC%82%AC-%EC%97%B0%EC%B0%A8%ED%9A%A8%EA%B3%BC-%EC%9D%84%EC%A3%BC%EA%B5%B0--01201605120144540.do?fldIds=TP_TER|TP_TER_NA#.V4NtMtKLSUk##3D_LAYER_END##.]
In 1965, government started a project to recover the barren land by establishing the "Seven-Year Forest Conservation Plan (1965~1971)." It also established the "General Forest Recovery Plan for Each Watershed" regarding 6 major river watersheds in 1967 and recovered 83% of the barren land until 1972. During the periods of the first and the second Ten-Year Forest Rehabilitation Plans, the government focused not only on the quantity but also on the quality of the erosion control work, establishing a strategy to complete the erosion control work for each region annually. At last, in 1988, government succeeded in greening the every barren land in the country.##3D_LAYER####3D_TEXT:[Table 4] Changes in area of denuded forest land and results of erosion control project from 1946 to 1988. Source: Korea Forest Service (2006).##3D_LINK:https://www.kdevelopedia.org/Resources/territorial-development/changes-aredenuded-forest-land-results-erosion-control-project-1946-1988-%ED%95%B4%EB%B0%A9-%EC%9D%B4%ED%9B%84-%ED%99%A9%ED%8F%90%EC%82%B0%EC%A7%80%EC%9D%98-%EB%B3%80%ED%99%94-%EC%B6%94%EC%9D%B4%EC%99%80-%EC%82%AC%EB%B0%A9%EC%82%AC%EC%97%85-%EC%8B%A4%EC%A0%81--04201606270145093.do?fldIds=TP_TER|TP_TER_NA#.V4Nt09KLSUk##3D_LAYER_END## ##MORE_LAYER_BOX##Among the many erosion control projects carried out by the Park Chung Hee government, the biggest achievement was recorded in the erosion control project for Yeongil District. The Yeongil District has a vast size of 4,538 ha in 115 villages. Since 1907, the erosion control works had been attempted 50 times with no success. The major reason for the failure was that the soil of the region was made up of shale and pelite, making it impossible to stabilize the topsoil and causing the soil to slide down by heavy rain annually. The government established the Five-Year Erosion Control Plan (1973~1977) for the Yeongil District and completed it on schedule. In5 years, a total amount of 3.8 billion won was spent. Also, 3.56 million people (the cumulative number) participated in the project (with an average number of 8,890 workers hired each day). A total number of 24 million seedlings (black locust, and alder) were planted, while 22 million pieces of sod, 2.25 million rocks, 2.13 million tons of soil dressing, 4,161 tons of fertilizer and 101 tons of seeds were used.
[Figure 7. ##3D_LAYER##Stages of restoration and regeneration of erosion control works at Yeongil district##3D_TEXT:[Figure 7] Yeongil District erosion-control work was completed on 4,538ha in five years that took the world by surprise. The picture shows the effect year by year.##3D_LINK:https://www.kdevelopedia.org/Resources/territorial-development/stages-restoration-regeneration-erosion-control-works-at-yeongil-district-%EC%98%81%EC%9D%BC%EC%A7%80%EA%B5%AC-%EC%82%AC%EB%B0%A9%EC%82%AC%EC%97%85-%EB%8B%A8%EA%B3%84%EB%B3%84-%EB%B3%B5%EA%B5%AC-%EC%9E%AC%EC%83%9D--01201605120144541.do?fldIds=TP_TER|TP_TER_NA#.V4NuYdKLSUk##3D_LAYER_END##.]
In the erosion control project, the support given by the Village Forestry Cooperative and the international institution played an extremely important role. Daily labor was provided by the Village Forestry Cooperative based on the traditional cooperative spirit of each village. ##MORE_LAYER_BOX##At that time, the Saemaul Movement was being carried out throughout the country with high enthusiasm. The farmers actively participated in the planting project with a hope for better agricultural and living environments by making thick forests. The mobilized farmers were paid less than the workers at the general labor market. However, they had chances to work for 5 years during the agricultural off-season.##MORE_LAYER_BOX_END## The cooperation and support of the international institutions also made a great contribution.##3D_LAYER####3D_TEXT:[Table 5] Results of erosion control work from 1945 to 1987 by different governments. Source: Korea Forest Service (2006).##3D_LINK:https://www.kdevelopedia.org/Resources/territorial-development/results-erosion-control-work-1945-1987-different-governments-%EC%97%AD%EB%8C%80-%EC%A0%95%EB%B6%80%EC%9D%98-%EC%82%AC%EB%B0%A9%EC%82%AC%EC%97%85-%EC%8B%A4%EC%A0%81--04201606270145094.do?fldIds=TP_TER|TP_TER_NA#.V4NvJ9KLSUk##3D_LAYER_END## ##MORE_LAYER_BOX##With the aids from the United Nations Korean Reconstruction Agency (UNKRA) in 1952 and the Public Law 480 of the International Cooperation Agency (ICA) of the United States in 1955, erosion control project was resumed, with wages being paid by relief grains. Flour was distributed as wages, gaining the nickname of "Flour Erosion Control." In 1958, technical advisors of the USOM were invited to preserve soil and water in the upper basin. In 1961, the project was transferred to the AID project. Also, FAO used the United Nations Special Fund (UNSF) to support the forest survey projects near the Nakdong River basin and the three major river basins.##MORE_LAYER_BOX_END##
C. Fuel Wood Forest Establishment Project (1951~1977)
The previous governments understood that it would not succeed in the forest reclamation without solving the fuel wood requirement in farming villages. Thus, between the 1950s and the late 1970s, the forest reclamation policy of the government focused on establishment of the fuel wood forest. The Forest Law specified that ##3D_LAYER##the fuel wood forest##3D_TEXT:Yoo et al. (2014). Forest resource development in Korea. (Refer to Chapter 2).##3D_LINK:https://www.kdevelopedia.org/Resources/industry-technology/forest-resource-development-korea--04201405130131821.do?fldIds=TP_IND|TP_IND_AG|TP_TER|TP_TER_EN#.VudzJZyLQhc##3D_LAYER_END## would be voluntarily established and managed by the village residents. The government provided the necessary financial support. In order to increase the residents’ participation level, the Forest Law stated that each village should form the Village Forestry Cooperative, which is the end-point organization of the nation-wide Forestry Cooperative. It is the cooperative body that creates profits by participating in stock raising, establishment of fuel wood forest, tree planting, and erosion control work. At that time, the private forests occupied more than 70% of the total forest land. In particular, most mountains near each village were private forests. Therefore, it was the most efficient to establish the fuel wood forest at the closest private forest. Forest Law specified that all the forest land owners must plant trees on their forest lands. When the forest land owner failed to plant trees, the Village Forestry Cooperative on behalf of the government established fuel wood forest. Any profits from the fuel wood or the forest products were shared between the forest land owner and the Village Forestry Cooperative in the ratio of 2:8 (which was changed to 1:9 later) according to the "profit share contract" specified by the Forest Law.
The village residents had to participate in establishing the fuel wood forest and in follow-up management for it as members of the Village Forestry Cooperative. When any village resident failed to participate in such a process, he or she lost the right to collect the fuel wood. The government provided every administrative and financial support required for the establishment of the fuel wood forest. Government distributed seedlings free of charge to the Cooperative. In the 1960s, by using the PL480(Public Law in the US), the aid grain given by the United States, the government provided people with flour or corns in order to encourage their participation.
The government estimated that establishing 0.5 ha fuel wood forest for each household would be enough to produce 5 tons of fuel wood annually. In particular, by using 4.4 million dollars from the IBRD loan in 1976 and 1977, the fuel wood forest establishment project was successfully completed.
Another project carried out together with the fuel wood forest was improvement of the traditional furnace. The government launched the furnace improvement project as part of the Saemaul Movement. The furnace was made of casted iron (with a cover). Between 1974 and 1979 government distributed 4 furnaces to each household free of charge, which saved about 30% of the fuel wood.
Since the late 1970s, the farmer’s income exceeded that of the workersin a city due to the Saemaul Movement. As a result, the farming village started to use coal instead of the fuel wood, reducing the necessity ##3D_LAYER##to collect the fuel wood##3D_TEXT:[Figure 8. Extracting fuel at fuel forests.] The black locust introduced from the US with vigorous sprouting ability was the most useful tree species to establish fuel-wood forest in 1960s. Source: Korea Forest Service (1976).##3D_LINK:https://www.kdevelopedia.org/Resources/territorial-development/extracting-fuel-at-fuel-forests-%EC%97%B0%EB%A3%8C%EB%A6%BC%EC%97%90%EC%84%9C-%EC%97%B0%EB%A3%8C%EC%B1%84%EC%B7%A8-%EC%9E%A5%EB%A9%B4--01201605120144542.do?fldIds=TP_TER|TP_TER_NA#.V4Nv2NKLSUk##3D_LAYER_END## from the forest. Finally the government changed the fuel wood forest to timber forest for management. Due to such a change, the forest reclamation was accelerated. The fuel wood forest establishment project cultivated the spirit for self-help and cooperation in farming village, establishing later the environment for the successful execution of the Saemaul Movement.##3D_LAYER####3D_TEXT:[Table 6] Results of tending care project of fuel wood forest (1973-1978). Source: Korea Forest Serivce (1997).##3D_LINK:https://www.kdevelopedia.org/Resources/territorial-development/results-tending-care-project-fuel-wood-forest-1973-1978-%EC%97%B0%EB%A3%8C%EB%A6%BC-%EB%AC%B4%EC%9C%A1%EC%82%AC%EC%97%85-%EC%8B%A4%EC%A0%81-1973-1978--04201606270145095.do?fldIds=TP_TER|TP_TER_NA#.V4Nwa9KLSUk##3D_LAYER_END####3D_LAYER####3D_TEXT:[Table 7] Survey of fuel wood forest and changes in policies of fuel wood forest in respect to decrease of dependencies on forest fuel. Source: Korea Forest Service (1989).##3D_LINK:https://www.kdevelopedia.org/Resources/territorial-development/survey-fuel-wood-forest-changes-policies-fuel-wood-forest-respect-decrease-dependencies-forest-fuel-%EC%97%B0%EB%A3%8C%EB%A6%BC-%EC%8B%A4%ED%83%9C%EC%A1%B0%EC%82%AC%EC%99%80-%EB%86%8D%EC%B4%8C%EC%9D%98-%EC%9E%84%EC%82%B0%EC%97%B0%EB%A3%8C-%EC%9D%98%EC%A1%B4%EB%8F%84-%EA%B0%90%EC%86%8C%EC%97%90-%EB%94%B0%EB%A5%B8-%EC%97%B0%EB%A3%8C%EB%A6%BC-%EC%A0%95%EC%B1%85%EC%9D%98-%EC%A0%84%ED%99%98--04201606270145096.do?fldIds=TP_TER|TP_TER_NA#.V4NxANKLSUk##3D_LAYER_END##
D. ##3D_LAYER##Slash-and-Burn Farming##3D_TEXT:[Photo 9. 1970’s slash-and-burn field in Gangwon-do] Slash-and-burn farming had been rampant without reach of the law until the beginning of the 1970s. It is sorrowful that damage was on a large scale including forest at a steep slope. Source: Korea Forest Service (1974).##3D_LINK:https://www.kdevelopedia.org/Resources/territorial-development/1970s-slash-and-burn-field-gangwon-do-1970%EB%85%84%EB%8C%80-%EA%B0%95%EC%9B%90%EB%8F%84-%ED%99%94%EC%A0%84%EC%8B%A4%ED%83%9C--01201605120144543.do?fldIds=TP_TER|TP_TER_NA#.V4NxstKLSUk##3D_LAYER_END## Regulation Project (1966-1978)
Through the rapid social changes in the Chosun Dynasty, the Japanese colonial era, the liberation period and the time after the Korean War, number of farmers involved in slash-and-burn farming gradually increased. In 1966, the government established the "Slash and Burn Farming Regulation Act" and started process of ##3D_LAYER##regulating slash and burn farming##3D_TEXT:Yoo et al. (2014). Forest resource development in Korea. (Refer to Chapter 3).##3D_LINK:https://www.kdevelopedia.org/Resources/industry-technology/forest-resource-development-korea--04201405130131821.do?fldIds=TP_IND|TP_IND_AG|TP_TER|TP_TER_EN#.VudzJZyLQhc##3D_LAYER_END##. In 1973, the Forest Service was taken over by the Ministry of Home Affairs, and the project was accelerated. In order to stop the slash and burn farming, government provided farmers with land or settling down in the city and get jobs. The Forest Service enacted the "Five-Year Slash-and-Burn Farming Regulation Act (1974~1978)".
The "Guidelines for the Regulation of the Slash-and-Burn Farming" includes the contents related to identification of lands of slash and burn farming, classification of the farmers, agricultural support for local settlers, multiple review committees, financial support for complete settlement of emigrants and job arrangement, and thorough follow-up management of emigrants. ##MORE_LAYER_BOX## Guidelines for regulation of the slash-and-burn farming were reasonable, transparent and compact administrative directions to secure the life of those involved in the slash-and-burn farming and to convert the burned fields into forest. The major directions are as follows.
1) Regulation of the Slash-and-Burn Farming Fields:
3) Farming Subsidy for Settlers:
4) Establishment of the Multiple Review Committees:
separately their residential areas twice a year for 3 years in order to check whether they still live in the city or not.##MORE_LAYER_BOX_END##
During the project period, more hidden farmers performing slash-and-burn farming were found. As a result, total slash-and-burn farming land of 120,000 ha was included in this project. The total number of 300,000 households involved was corresponded to 6% of the population in South Korea or 12% of the total farmers at that time. The project was successfully completed within 5 years, because the President and his government showed a strong intention, and fair and transparent criteria were applied to the farmers to select the particular farmers who received many benefits from the project. Thus, this project resolved the prolonged problems which lasted for 700 years.##3D_LAYER####3D_TEXT:[Table 8] Area of slash-and-burn farming regulation and other related areas (1966-1979). Source: Korea Forest Service (1980).##3D_LINK:https://www.kdevelopedia.org/Resources/territorial-development/areslash-and-burn-farming-regulation-other-related-areas-1966-1979--unit-h-%EC%97%B0%EB%8F%84%EB%B3%84-%ED%99%94%EC%A0%84%EC%A7%80-%EC%A0%95%EB%A6%AC-%EB%A9%B4%EC%A0%81-%EA%B8%B0%ED%83%80-%EB%A9%B4%EC%A0%81-1966-1979--%EB%8B%A8%EC%9C%84-h--04201606270145097.do?fldIds=TP_TER|TP_TER_NA#.V4N2itKLSUk##3D_LAYER_END####3D_LAYER####3D_TEXT:[Table 9] Results of slash-and-burn farming household regulation (1966-1979). Source: Korea Forest Service (1980).##3D_LINK:https://www.kdevelopedia.org/Resources/territorial-development/results-slash-and-burn-farming-household-regulation-1966-1979-unit-number-households-%EC%97%B0%EB%8F%84%EB%B3%84-%ED%99%94%EC%A0%84%EA%B0%80%EA%B5%AC%EC%A0%95%EB%A6%AC%EC%8B%A4%EC%A0%81-1966-1979--04201606270145098.do?fldIds=TP_TER|TP_TER_NA#.V4N24tKLSUk##3D_LAYER_END##
[Figure 10. ##3D_LAYER##Settlements of slash-and-burn farmers and miners##3D_TEXT:[Figure 10] Scene of a settlement for slash-and-burn farmers. Though it was a desolate place without a tree in a nearby mountain, a school was first built to give education to their children. Source: Korea Forest Serivce (1974).##3D_LINK:https://www.kdevelopedia.org/Resources/territorial-development/settlements-slash-and-burn-farmers-miners-%ED%99%94%EC%A0%84%EB%AF%BC-%EA%B4%91%EB%B6%80-%EC%A0%95%EC%B0%A9%EC%B4%8C--01201605120144544.do?fldIds=TP_TER|TP_TER_NA#.V4N3btKLSUk##3D_LAYER_END##.]
E. The Planted-tree Insepction System (1973~1987)
The planted-tree inspection system can be regarded as a representative case of governance in the reforestation project. It was a procedure to check whether the trees planted in spring still survive in autumn next year and whether the stock raising is carried out by the tree nursery as planned. Due to various reasons, in previous years the survival rate of the planting site was not clearly identified.
The planted-tree inspection was carried out three times, including the initial self-examination. The self-examination was performed by the forest officials to check the survival ofthe plants which they had planted by themselves. Based on the results of the self-examination, the governor implemented the first inspection. A tree inspector was selected within the province and transferred to another region. The reason for the interchanging inspection was to secure transparency and fairness. According to the results of the first inspection, the Forest Service selected more than 300 tree inspectors throughout the country and sent them for the second inspection to other provinces to which they did not belong. According to the sample-plot survey, 10% of the national planting area was selected and 15% of the total number of planted-trees was surveyed. Every tree inspector signed on the document to identify the responsible persons for the inspection.
This inspection system greatly contributed to the increase in the survival rate of the planted trees. The survival rate of trees in the plantations used to be less than 70% in the earlier days. In 1974, the national average survival rate was 86.6%. In 1986, it was increased to 93.3%. For the villages with excellent results from the inspection, an additional income-promoting Saemaul Movement project was allowed, while the forest officials in charge received a commendation or a promotion. Such awards were given to induce competition in good faith among the officials and among the villages. Also, it was possible to establish mood in which the forest officials could carry out their work with a full sense of responsibility, while increasing the survival rate of the trees and executing transparent and fair administration. Such results were regarded as good examples of governance in other fields.##3D_LAYER####3D_TEXT:[Table 10] Main features of the cross planted-tree insepction in 1974. Source: National Forestry Cooperative Federation (1974).##3D_LINK:https://www.kdevelopedia.org/Resources/territorial-development/main-features-cross-planted-tree-inspection-1974-1974%EB%85%84%EB%8F%84-%EA%B5%90%EC%B0%A8%EA%B2%80%EB%AA%A9-%EA%B2%B0%EA%B3%BC-%EC%9A%94%EC%95%BD--04201606280145105.do?fldIds=TP_TER|TP_TER_NA#.V4N4OtKLSUk##3D_LAYER_END####3D_LAYER####3D_TEXT:[Table 11] Changes from 1974 to 1986 in survival rates of trees planted in various regions surveyed by the planted-tree inspection system. Source: National Forestry Cooperative Federation (1974-1986).##3D_LINK:https://www.kdevelopedia.org/Resources/territorial-development/changes-1974-1986-survival-rates-trees-planted-various-regions-surveyed-planted-tree-inspection-system-%EA%B2%80%EB%AA%A9%EC%9C%BC%EB%A1%9C-%EC%9D%B8%ED%95%9C-%EC%A7%80%EC%97%AD%EB%B3%84-%EC%A1%B0%EB%A6%BC%EC%A7%80-%ED%99%9C%EC%B0%A9%EB%A5%A0-%EB%B3%80%ED%99%94%EC%99%80-%EC%A7%80%EC%97%AD%EA%B0%84-%EB%B9%84%EA%B5%90--04201606280145110.do?fldIds=TP_TER|TP_TER_NA#.V4N4ptKLSUk##3D_LAYER_END##