Since adopting its first ##3D_LAYER##transportation policy##3D_TEXT:1) Kang, M. (2015). Smart city: A case of Seoul.##3D_LINK:https://www.kdevelopedia.org/Resources/industry-technology/smart-city--05201603290143936.do?fldIds=TP_IND|TP_IND_IT|TP_TER|TP_TER_TR#.V5adfdLhCiN##3D_TEXT:2) 윤혁렬. (2005). 서울시 대중교통체계개편에 따른 대중교통정보체계 정비 및 활용방안(Implementing of public transportation information system accompanying with Seoul bus system reform programs).##3D_LINK:https://www.kdevelopedia.org/Resources/territorial-development/%EC%84%9C%EC%9A%B8%EC%8B%9C-%EB%8C%80%EC%A4%91%EA%B5%90%ED%86%B5%EC%B2%B4%EA%B3%84%EA%B0%9C%ED%8E%B8%EC%97%90-%EB%94%B0%EB%A5%B8-%EB%8C%80%EC%A4%91%EA%B5%90%ED%86%B5%EC%A0%95%EB%B3%B4%EC%B2%B4%EA%B3%84-%EC%A0%95%EB%B9%84-%ED%99%9C%EC%9A%A9%EB%B0%A9%EC%95%88-implementation-public-transportation-information-system-accompanying-with-seoul-bus-system-reform-programs--05201502100136667.do?fldIds=TP_TER|TP_TER_TR#.V5adntLhCiN##3D_TEXT:3) Information and Communications Technology. (2015). Intelligent transportation systems for sustainable development in Asia and the Pacific.##3D_LINK:https://www.kdevelopedia.org/Resources/territorial-development/intelligent-transportation-systems-sustainable-development-asipacific--05201603250143915.do?fldIds=TP_TER|TP_TER_TR#.V5ad49LhCiN##3D_LAYER_END## two decades ago, Seoul Metropolitan Government has experimented with various fragmentary and short-term changes, some of which went on to produce positive results. Nevertheless, fundamental reform and improvement of public transportation in Seoul required an integrated public transportation system capable of offering lower fare rates and that connected all of the diverse stakeholders, including Seoul City, transportation companies, drivers and personnel, and citizens. In other words, there was a growing need for a comprehensive system for managing the transportation infrastructure (including the exclusive bus lanes), subsidies, and passenger databases. Seoul’s policymakers thus reached the conclusion that they needed to establish an advanced, centralized system for monitoring and managing bus services, providing real-time updates on bus information, and improving the quality of bus services.
A.2) Aims and goals of BMS
Seoul’s Bus Management System (BMS) was introduced with the overarching objective of improving public satisfaction with bus services by amassing and processing massive amounts of data relevant to improving the punctuality of buses and developing better bus policies in the future. The BMS is intended to benefit all stakeholders involved. Bus passengers and citizens, for example, benefit from the real-time updates on ##3D_LAYER##bus services and related information##3D_TEXT:1) 김전산과 박준식. (2011). 수도권 수요대응형 버스서비스 도입방안 연구(Demand responsive bus service on metropolitan areas).##3D_LINK:https://www.kdevelopedia.org/Resources/territorial-development/%EC%88%98%EB%8F%84%EA%B6%8C-%EC%88%98%EC%9A%94%EB%8C%80%EC%9D%91%ED%98%95-%EB%B2%84%EC%8A%A4%EC%84%9C%EB%B9%84%EC%8A%A4-%EB%8F%84%EC%9E%85%EB%B0%A9%EC%95%88-%EC%97%B0%EA%B5%AC-demand-responsive-bus-service-metropolitareas--05201507030138850.do?fldIds=TP_TER|TP_TER_TR#.V5aeRdLhCiN##3D_TEXT:2) Seoul Metropolitan Government. (2014). Seoul Owl Bus based on big data technology.##3D_LINK:https://www.kdevelopedia.org/Resources/industry-technology/seoul-s-%E2%80%9Cowl-bus%E2%80%9D-based-big-dattechnology--05201603250143910.do?fldIds=TP_IND|TP_IND_SC|TP_TER|TP_TER_TR#.V5agv9LhCiN##3D_LAYER_END##. In addition, the BMS aimed to minimize errors in headway, reduce passenger discomfort associated with excessive speed and aggressive driving, and reduce the time passengers spent waiting at bus stops by providing good estimates on when the next buses would arrive.
The system was designed so that bus drivers would be able to time their trips more effectively based on up-to-date information on bus headways and road conditions. They would also be better able to adjust their speed and help maintain the orderliness of bus services accordingly.
Bus companies would be able to increase profits by attracting more passengers with their timely bus services and information updates. Predictable headways, coupled with greater control over speeding and aggressive driving, would not only attract more passengers, but also help reduce accidents and insurance costs. By maintaining tight control over headways and bus speeds, companies would be able to rationalize their operations and personnel. In addition, as companies would have greater control over bus drivers and their driving behavior (e.g., preventing drivers from passing stops without stopping), they would also be able to improve the quality of bus services significantly.
Finally, Seoul City would be able to ensure the rationality, predictability, and objectivity of its policy on the management of bus services by gaining access to systematic databases of bus service records and information. Such information would further enable the city to ensure the punctuality of buses and discipline bus drivers for unruly driving behavior, thereby inducing drivers to better comply with traffic laws.
A.3) Structure of BMS
The BMS consists of a data gathering system, data processing system, and data provision system. The data gathering system collects information on buses and their routes though global positioning system (GPS) devices installed on the buses. The system sends bus-related data in 20-second intervals, as the buses arrive at and depart from each bus stop, to the data center via a wireless data communications network. The data processing system sorts and compiles the data received from the data gathering system into databases via communications and location processing servers. The data provision system then delivers the processed information to the public, bus operating companies, drivers, and policymakers via various servers.
A.4) Effects of the introduction of BMS
Under today’s BMS, bus drivers receive information, through onboard devices, regarding the distances between buses on the same route, bus routes in operation, and headways between the buses. Drivers then use this information to time their trips and adjust their speed accordingly so as to ensure the timeliness of bus services for the public. The BMS, as well as other information systems operated by bus companies, also provides real-time updates on accidents and other road-related conditions, thus helping to reduce delays and accidents.
Bus companies use special devices provided by the BMS to monitor the status of buses in operation on a real-time basis. More specifically, bus company operators can check the operating conditions of each route on a digital map of Seoul, instruct bus drivers on how to time their trips, and deliver other key pieces of information (e.g., regarding accidents and traffic congestion) that drivers need while driving. Bus companies also use the headway control feature of the BMS devices to chart the movements of buses along each route, thereby allowing them to better control bus drivers. Moreover, the BMS provides information on the passengers getting on and off buses based on transit card transactions, which facilitates the processing of per-vehicle and per-kilometer payment information required by the semi-public operation system.
In the meantime, thanks to an automated response system (ARS), citizens are able to obtain real-time updates on estimated bus departure and arrival times via the Internet, smart devices, mobile phones, and the telephone. The BMS allows citizens to select their main bus routes (My Bus) and obtain information more quickly. In October 2005, Seoul Metropolitan Government replaced bus stop ID numbers with standardized five-digit codes and updated the BMS to include the new codes, allowing citizens to search for and find information on specific bus stops more efficiently via the Internet and the ARS. Now, almost 30,000 queries are made daily through the BMS using these standardized codes.
In addition, the BMS operator can monitor the status of buses in operation on a real-time basis. The operator also collects statistics and data on bus trips, bus stops, and accidents and other emergency situations in order to support the evaluation of bus operating companies. The transit card transaction records provide data on when and where passengers get on and off their buses, thus facilitating analyses of bus speeds, passenger behavior patterns, bus capacities, and route redundancies. These analyses, in turn, allow policymakers to make informed decisions regarding the creation, modification, or termination of bus routes, readjustment of the number of buses allotted to each route, and management of exclusive bus lanes.
B) ##3D_LAYER##Transport OPeration Information System##3D_TEXT:Seoul Metropolitan Government. (2015). TOPIS: The control Tower for Seouls intelligent transportation system.##3D_LINK:https://www.kdevelopedia.org/Resources/industry-technology/topis--05201603250143909.do?fldIds=TP_IND|TP_IND_SC|TP_TER|TP_TER_TR#.VvnPcfmLQhc##3D_LAYER_END##
Launched in 2005, the Transportation Operation and Information Service (TOPIS) is a centralized transportation management system operated by Seoul Metropolitan Government. TOPIS collects a wide range of data from transportation-related authorities in Korea, including the BMS, transit card and automated control systems, Transportation Broadcasting System (TBS), National Policy Agency, and Korea Expressway Corporation.
TOPIS collects and updates traffic information around the clock throughout the year. It is comprised of 741 closed-circuit television (surveillance) cameras installed across Seoul that provide real-time images showing the conditions of major roads in the city. It also shares real-time updates on road and traffic conditions with the police and TBS. Citizens can access this information via the Seoul Metropolitan Government website or mobile application, social media (Twitter) channels, variable message signs (VMSs), and bus information terminals (BITs).
Operation of BMS: TOPIS ensures the accuracy of headways and the timeliness of all bus services (9,400 vehicles, 610 routes) in Seoul using satellite-based information.
TOPIS also provides real-time updates on the status of public transportation (subway and buses) by route and stop/station, including the estimated arrival time of buses and subway trains. In addition to making these updates available via mobile applications, BITs, QR codes, and other such channels, TOPIS shares real-time information on all buses through portal sites, telecommunication service providers, and private developers so as to realize a ubiquitous public transportation information service system.
B.3) Effects of the introduction of TOPIS
TOPIS has significantly improved bus passenger satisfaction with its timely updates and delivery of bus-related information. It has also minimized headway errors and aggressive driving (including speeding), improved the comfort and sense of safety of bus passengers, and reduced the time passengers spend waiting for buses.
TOPIS has proved beneficial for bus companies as well, as the improved headways and predictability of bus services have led to increases in the number of bus passengers. Thanks to TOPIS, bus companies are now able to better control and prevent speeding and unruly driving behavior, thereby reducing accidents and insurance costs. Using TOPIS, bus companies are able to better rationalize their management and prevent bus drivers from passing bus stops without stopping, raising the overall quality of bus services as a result.
As for Seoul City, TOPIS has enhanced the public’s trust in bus services and the city’s management of it. It also enables policymakers to make more informed policy decisions by providing them with rational, accurate, and objective data and information. Along with the exclusive bus lanes, TOPIS has contributed much to improving the punctuality of buses. It has also enabled the city government to promptly discipline drivers for illegal or aggressive driving behavior, thereby motivating bus drivers to better comply with traffic laws.