Background of the CMB Project
The Minnesota Project spurred "drastic and rapid change" in the areas of education, research, and clinical practice at SNUMC, increasing capacity in each. Many of the project’s stakeholders wanted to continue it. However, in the rapidly changing political and diplomatic environment of the 1960s, it could not be prolonged.
Fortunately, just after the Minnesota Project, the China Medical Board of the ##3D_LAYER##Rockefeller Foundation##3D_TEXT:China Medical Board of New York, Inc. (CMB) was originally launched as a department of the Rockefeller Foundation in 1914. However, it became an independent institution in 1928. It mainly supported Peking Union Medical College until the college became public property in 1951 after the communization of China. The CMB eventually withdrew from communized China and began projects in nine other countries. Korea became one of its beneficiaries during this time.##3D_LAYER_END## United States (CMB) agreed to support SNUMC (including the Department of Nursing and the Graduate School of Public Health) in its transition from the Minnesota Project. Though the CMB's assistance for SNUMC can be traced back to 1953, full-scale support of 5.5 million USD began from 1963 and continued until 1986.
In 1963, when the Minnesota Project ended, the dean of SNUMC asked the CMB to send a consultant to solve the administrative and educational issues it was encountering due to the project's end. The CMB agreed, sending Dr. N.L. Gault Jr. who had served as the advisor of the Minnesota Project at SNUMC. From that point onwards, CMB assistance to SNUMC grew rapidly. ##MORE_LAYER_BOX##In this sense, the CMB Project functioned as a continuation of the Minnesota Project. This event was noteworthy in that SNU, as the recipient institution, was proactive in garnering assistance from the CMB after the end of the Minnesota Project, and for the reason that CMB sent an individual who already had a close relationship SNUMC to assist in resolving the issues.
[Figure 5. Dr. N.L. Gault Jr., an Advisor of The Minnesota Project
and The First Consultant for The China Medical Board (CMB)]
Comparison of the CMB Project and the Minnesota Project
The two projects had similarities and differences: both projects shared the same objectives but differed in the scope of assistance and the target institution. The CMB limited its assistance to health sciences: medicine, nursing, and public health. Support was not limited to SNU but expanded to include other universities as well. The CMB continued the overseas fellowship program (44), dispatch of advisors (7), and equipment and facilities supply for SNUMC. However, a fairly large portion was allocated to the construction of a library and multidisciplinary laboratory (MDL), hospital renovations, books and journals, and research funds.
There were still professors, including newly appointed ones, who had not been trained in the overseas fellowship program of the Minnesota Project (though nearly 70 percent had). Thus, the CMB helped the remaining professors obtain overseas training opportunities. ##MORE_LAYER_BOX##In the Minnesota Project, fellowship was mostly limited to the University of Minnesota. The CMB recommended, however, that the Korean professors rather select countries that possessed smaller technological gaps with Korea compared to the United States. This recommendation mostly fell on deaf ears since the majority of the professors desired fellowships in the United States, which was a symbol of advanced science to the Korean people at that time.##MORE_LAYER_BOX_END##
The professors who returned after their fellowships had a broadened view accompanied with a strong desire to improve Korean teaching, research, and clinical practice. They faced barriers in doing so, however, since Korea lacked adequate books, journals, laboratory equipment, hospital facilities, and research funds. The CMB Project answered these urgent needs.
[Table 1. Comparison between CMB Project and Minnesota Project]
1963 to 1986 (23 years)
1954 to 1961 (7 years)
China Medical Board of New York
International Cooperation Administration,
US Department of States
SNU Cooperative Project
1) Capacity building in research. Strengthening public health, and nursing education.
2) To sustain further development for independent self-development.
1) Capacity building in education, research, and clinical practice. Advisory service, facility/equipment supply for college of medicine, engineering, and agriculture.
2) To promote Seoul National University as a leading institution.
Seoul National University, Yonsei University, ChunNam University, ChunBuk University, KyungBuk University
Mode of Operation
The President of CMB visited Korea twice a year to check progress on sites
59 advisors worked at SNU
Allowed trainees to choose any university in the United States or in other countries
Limited to training at the University of Minnesota in the United States
226 faculty members (77 from health science)
The biggest difference was in ##3D_LAYER##matching funds.##3D_TEXT:About 1.4 million USD.##3D_LAYER_END## While the CMB Project obligated beneficiary institutions to contribute matching funds as a requirement for assistance, in the Minnesota Project the Korean government was responsible for matching funds. In order to meet the CMB requirements, SNUMC organized a fundraising campaign. In other words, the responsibility of the beneficiary institution was heavier in the CMB Project compared to the Minnesota Project. The former's method provided more momentum for ##LINK_POPUP##self-development##MAINTITLE:Momentum for self-development.##TITLE: ##CONTENT:According to ##3D_LAYER##Dr. Kwon E. Hyeok,##3D_TEXT:Dr. Kwon E. Hyeok is representative of this theme. He majored in public health, and studied at the University of Minnesota in the same period as the Minnesota Project. After studying in the United States, he became the dean of SNUMC, the president of SNU, and finally the minister of the Ministry of Health and the Ministry of Education.##3D_LAYER_END## the former president of Seoul National University, the dean of the Minnesota School of Public Health requested that Kwon establish the School of Public Health at Seoul National University upon his return to Korea after completing his MPH training in Minnesota in 1956. The request remained of utmost importance in Kwon’s mind. When he returned to Korea and became an assistant professor at SNUMC, he was recruited to assist Dr. Myung Ju Wan, the dean of SNUMC, in managing the Minnesota Project. In 1958, SNU submitted a proposal to establish the School of Public Health, and it was finally established the following year.
[Figure 6. Dr. Kwon E. Hyeok]
Results of the Projects
The Minnesota Project brought "drastic and rapid change" in SNUMC. However, without the CMB Project, the sustainability of such innovation may have been lost: in other words, the CMB Project enabled the continuation and stabilization of such change. And as already mentioned, the matching fund method of the CMB Project spurred a stage of self-development in Korea.
The CMB Project induced Korean medicine, nursing, and public health education and research to follow the stream of American trends within a short period of time. Compared to the Minnesota Project, the CMB Project greatly contributed to the self-development of medicine, nursing, and public health at SNU. So we can say that Korea received the baptism of American medicine in the 1950 to 1960s, but that Korean medicine, which appropriated American medicine and adapted it to the Korean environment, was itself formed in around the mid-1970s.