It was during the CMB Project that the Korean government established the National Teacher Training Center for Health Personnel (NTTC) at SNUMC (March 1975). Actually initiatives for the center began in 1972, when SNUMC launched the Institute of Continuing Medical Education to develop ##3D_LAYER##nationwide continuing education programs.##3D_TEXT:These days, continuing medical education programs are offered mainly by medical colleges, teaching hospitals, and academic societies. However, in the 1970s, these institutions did not believe continuing education was their responsibility.##3D_LAYER_END## The institute, supported by the CMB Project, offered postgraduate, continuing medical education, and faculty development programs for all medical colleges in Korea. At the end of 1973, ##3D_LAYER##Audio-Visual Resource Center##3D_TEXT:Audio-visual resources, i.e. abnormal heartbeat, pathology films, and microscopic photos, were all very important for authentic medical education.##3D_LAYER_END## was opened at SNUMC. In 1974, the Korean government requested that SNUMC carry out a feasibility study for the establishment of the NTTC.
This request was based on a recommendation from the World Health Organization (WHO), which believed that developing countries needed "comprehensive, coordinated long-term programs for teachers of medical and allied health sciences" in order to improve the competencies of health professionals. A document published in 1966 noted that the "insufficiency of teachers continues to be a basic problem. Many academically qualified workers, despite their knowledge of subject matter, often lack special preparation in education science, particularly with respect to pedagogy and learning process. In order to tackle this serious problem, the WHO will promote the development of teacher training centers in medical and allied sciences to serve inter-regional, regional and ##3D_LAYER##country needs##3D_TEXT:The Training and Preparation of Teachers for Medical Schools with Special Regard to the Needs of Developing Countries. Report of the Expert Committee on Professional and Technical Education of Medical and Auxiliary Personnel. WHO Technical Report Series No. 337, Geneva, 1966. P 24##3D_LAYER_END##."
It was under the WHO's plan to develop teacher training centers that the Inter-regional (Global) Teacher Training Center for Health Personnel (IRTTC) was established at the Center for Educational Development, University of Illinois College of Medicine in September 1970. From 1971 to 1973, regional teacher training centers (RTTCs) were established in ##LINK_POPUP##the six regions of the WHO.##MAINTITLE:Regional Centers##TITLE: ##CONTENT:
1. Makarere University, Kampala, Uganda
2. University Center of Health Sciences, Yaounde, Cameroon
3. Latin American Center for Educational Technology in Health Sciences, Mexico City, Mexico
4. Health Sciences Center, Rio De Janeiro, Brazil
5. Bahlau University Medical School, Shiraz, Iran
Not RTTC per se but WHO central office in Geneva
6. Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand
7. Faculty of Medicine, University of Sri Lanka, Peradiveija, Sri Lanka
8. Faculty of Medicine, University of New South Wales, Sydney Australia
##LINK_POPUP_END## In the Western Pacific region, an RTTC was established at the University of New South Wales, Australia. And in 1975, national teacher training centers (NTTCs) were established at SNUMC and at the University of the Philippines in Manila.
Activities of the NTTC
The IRTTC was ##LINK_POPUP##designed##MAINTITLE:Diagram of Three-level Teacher Training Centers##TITLE: ##CONTENT:
##LINK_POPUP_END## to assist the RTTCs, and the RTTCs to help the NTTCs. Korean professors began to be invited to the RTTC in Australia in 1973 to be trained in health professional education theory and practice. Until 1990, over 50 professors had attended training sessions conducted by the RTTC. Some of them completed graduate degrees in health professional education.
These professors functioned as core members of the NTTC. They designed, developed, and implemented effective training programs based on what they had learned at the RTTC. The NTTC organized nationwide continuing medical education programs for provincial hospitals and faculty development programs for all medical and nursing colleges, and teaching hospitals.
The NTTC received financial support from the CMB and technical support from the WHO Western Pacific Regional Office. The two centers at SNUMC, the Institute of Continuing Medical Education and the Audio-Visual Resource Center, were integrated into the NTTC. The NTTC had four divisions: training, research, learning resource production, and the audio-visual resource archive division.
The NTTC published textbooks for continuing education and organized national and international symposiums on key topics in each era. Furthermore, it functioned as the administrative office of the Korean Association of Medical Colleges and the Council of Deans of National Medical Colleges. Until 1988 when Korea was removed from the list of developing countries, the NTTC organized overseas fellowship programs funded by the WHO and the Overseas Economic Cooperation Fund (OECF) of Japan.
Results of the Project
Through the NTTC, the innovations achieved and accumulated at the SNUMC as a result of the Minnesota Project, the CMB Project, and the RTTC’s support, spread to other institutions. According to E.M. Rogers, the four elements of diffusion of innovation are: (1) an innovation, (2) [that] is communicated through [a] certain channel, (3) over time, (4) among members of a social system. The NTTC functioned as a channel to spread innovation. Following Rogers’ framework, we can say that, (1) innovations at the SNUMC, (2) were communicated through the NTTC, (3) for more than 20 years, (4) among homogenous members of a social system such as medical colleges, nursing colleges, and teaching hospitals.
The NTTC at SNUMC still functions as a central institution for faculty development in Korea. Since its establishment in 1975, it has trained more than 15,000 professors over the course of 40 years, and has greatly contributed to the development of health professional education in Korea.
In 2010 when Korea became a member of the OECD Development Assistance Committee, the NTTC began to assist in the educational development of developing countries, such as Cambodia, Lao PDR, Mongolia, and Myanmar, and is continuing to expand its role. Recognizing its contribution for educational development, the WHO Western Pacific Regional Office designated SNUMC as the Regional Education Development Center from 2012 to 2015, and the WHO Collaborating Center for Educational Development from 2015 to 2019.