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Interlocking Government Policy Needs with Training Program

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Interlocking Government Policy Needs with Training Program06



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Title Interlocking Government Policy Needs with Training Program
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Material Type Reports
Date 2015
Language Korean
File Type Theme
Subject Government and Law < Public Administration
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Abstract

Sub-Theme 1 | Interlocking Government Policy Needs with Training Program





The overall training system for government officials was structured to reflect government policy needs. Training programs were provided by delivering institutions following the guidelines of the policymaking authority. 





Institutionalization of Training System



When the military government initiated the capacity building of government officials in 1961, the government established a system wherein the policymaking authority directly controlled the training institution. The Supreme Council for National Reconstruction (SCNR), the highest policymaking body of the military government holding both legislative and executive powers at that time enacted the Government Officials Training Act (GOT Act) and established the ##3D_LAYER##Central Officials Training Institute (COTI)##3D_TEXT:COTI was established by the central government in 1961 for the purpose of providing training for government officials. COTI was renamed National HRD Institute (NHI) in 2016.##3D_LAYER_END##.##3D_LAYER##[2]##3D_TEXT:COTI (2009). Sixty Years History of COTI 1949-2009: Road to the Nation with Talented Officials. Kyungsung Munwhasa.##3D_LAYER_END## Besides, the government established the Education and Training Department within the ##3D_LAYER##Ministry of General Affairs (MOGA)##3D_TEXT:MOGA was one of the central government ministries in charge of public personnel administration, organizational management of government, and the protocols of government ceremonies. Renamed several times, it is currently called the Ministry of Personnel Management (MPM).##3D_LAYER_END## in order to take charge of capacity building for government officials from a central government perspective. Accordingly, while the Education and Training Department was responsible for establishing an annual plan for government officials training, COTI was in charge of providing training programs. When the government later allowed central government ministries and provincial governments to establish their own training centers for the teaching of specialized functions, COTI’s responsibilities expanded to include supervision of these centers’ training activities. 



Central government ministries controlled the training of government officials. Specifically, COTI (for central government officials) was under the supervision of MOGA and the ##3D_LAYER##Local Administration Training Institute (LATI)##3D_TEXT:LATI was established by the central government to train local government officials. Its English name was changed to Local Government Officials Development Institute (LOGODI).##3D_LAYER_END## for local government officials was under the purview of the Ministry of Home Affairs (MOHA). Individual ministries ran their own training institutions specialized in the designated functional areas and provincial governments also operated training centers.



 
[Figure 1. Civil Service Training System]







Bridging the Policy Needs of Government in Training Programs



The Korean government established a civil service training plan that reflected the needs of economic development policies. By law, MOGA was required to establish an annual education and training plan and convey it to the heads of government ministries, agencies, and training institutions. MOGA, in its annual plan for education and training of government officials, reflected in the plan the major policy decisions of the Cabinet. In particular, training programs were newly developed or aspects of existing programs reorganized accordingly.



The Planning Program is a case in point. This program was opened to teach skills and techniques in planning to government officials working at planning offices in central ministries and agencies. This program supported the offices of planning and coordination established by the military government in central government ministries in 1962 in their efforts to effectively implement the ##3D_LAYER##First Five-year Economic Development Plan##3D_TEXT:The military government initiated the First Five-year Economic Development Plan in 1962 as a central government strategy for the industrialization of Korea. The plan resulted in a 7.8% growth in the Korean economy, exceeding expectations, while GNP per capita grew from 83 to 125 US dollars.##3D_LAYER_END##. 



Another example is a series of courses on new managerial techniques for mid-level officials added by COTI to existing programs in 1967. The courses included: the ##3D_LAYER##Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT)##3D_TEXT:PERT is a statistical tool for management planning and control of large-scale projects developed by the United States Navy in the 1950s.##3D_LAYER_END##; the ##3D_LAYER##Critical Path Method (CPM)##3D_TEXT:A step-by-step project management technique for process planning that defines critical and non-critical tasks with the goal of preventing time-frame problems and process bottlenecks. The CPM is ideally suited to projects consisting of numerous activities that interact in a complex manner.##3D_LAYER_END##; the ##3D_LAYER##Operational Research (OR)##3D_TEXT:OR is the discipline of applying advanced analytical methods to help make better decisions. By using techniques such as mathematical modeling to analyze complex situations, operations research provided the power to make more effective decisions and build more productive systems.##3D_LAYER_END##; and the ##3D_LAYER##Program Planning and Budgeting System (PPBS)##3D_TEXT:PPBS is a technique that stresses the importance of establishing a strong linkage between planning and budgeting. It was elaborated by the RAND Corporation in the mid-1960s in order to integrate planning, programming and budgeting together in one system.##3D_LAYER_END##—all were very useful for establishing development policies. At that time, the government of the Third Republic needed to foster competent officials who could conduct planning tasks to prepare for the Second Five-Year Economic Development Plan.##3D_LAYER##[3]##3D_TEXT:Choi, Changyong & Choe, Chang Soo (2013). Education and Training Program for Capacity Development for Korean Government Officials. Korean Ministry of Strategy and Finance. 64-66.##3D_LINK:https://www.kdevelopedia.org/Resources/social-development/education-training-program-capacity-development-koregovernment-officials--04201306130126680.do?fldIds=TP_SOC|TP_SOC_ED|TP_GOV|TP_GOV_PA#.WK6DfW-LSpo##3D_LAYER_END##



Even though the government lacked the necessary facilities and systems, it still provided advanced courses on managerial and statistical techniques to mid-level officials. Thus we can view such training as preemptive or concurrent—a strategy to equip mid-level officials with the advanced knowledge and techniques they would need to design and execute development policies.