Sub-Theme 4 | Lessons and Implications
Reason for Failure of Training Program in Developing Countries
In the 1980s and 1990s, much research was conducted on the outcomes of capacity building for government officials of developing countries. The researchers found that in general, training activities focused on skills and knowledge transfer do not ultimately lead to performance improvements in governmental organizations.##3D_LAYER####3D_TEXT:Healy, P. (2001). Training and Public Sector Reform: An Integrated Approach. Public Administration & Development. 21: 309-319. Reilly, Wyn. (1987). Management and training for development: the Hombe thesis. Public Administration & Development. 7: 25-42.##3D_LAYER_END## The reasons for this failure were identified as the following: demotivating organizational cultures; the underutilization of qualified people at management level and in organizations overall; ineffective communication, lack of professional norms, and weak teamwork; and the brain drain to the private sector.##3D_LAYER####3D_TEXT:Hilderbrand, Mary E. & Grindle, Merilee S. (1997). Building Sustainable Capacity in the Public Sector: What Can Be Done? In Merilee S. Grindle (ed.). Getting Good Government: Capacity Building in the Public Sector of Developing Countries. Harvard Institute for International Development. 31-61.##3D_LAYER_END##
This does not necessarily mean that training focused on skills, knowledge, and technology transfer is not important for the capacity building of government; it rather indicates that something more is required in order to see real performance improvement in government. Although it is impossible to fully apply Korea’s experience to developing countries, several implications can be drawn from Korea.
Training First, Assignment Later
Policymakers in underdeveloped countries who are pursuing national development should prioritize civil service training. Government organizations play important roles in underdeveloped economies where civil society and the private sector are relatively weak. The Korean government stipulates that government officials newly employed or due for promotion attend training programs before assignment. Appropriate training is provided preemptively to ensure that job responsibilities at each stage of development can be carried out accurately and effectively.
Establishing Legal and Institutional Frameworks
One reason for the success of civil service training in Korea is its solid legal and institutional foundation. The Korean government enacted and revised laws concerned with civil service training and training institutions from the beginning. The institutionalization of legal and organizational frameworks has provided a solid foundation for continuous civil service training in the country.##3D_LAYER####3D_TEXT:The Korean government enacted the Government Officials Training Act (GOT Act) and Central Officials Training Institute Act (COTI Act) in 1961. The GOT Act provided the legal foundation and the COTI Act the training institutions for civil service training. The government integrated the GOT Act and the COTI Act into the revised GOT Act in 1963. In 1973, the government abolished the GOT Act and enacted the Government Officials Education and Training Act (GOET Act). The GOET Act stipulates that government strengthen refresher training on a regular basis, offer specialized job training, train new employees, and provide courses for government officials on new managerial techniques. GOET Act was amended in 1978 in order to include provisions on commissioned training.##3D_LAYER_END##
Bridging Government Policy and Training
The Korean training system which bridged government policy and training contents maximized the effects of training on the capacity development of government officials. It also raised organizational capacity by utilizing and integrating the accumulated capacities of individual officials to the greatest effect.
Public Service Ethics Training
Korea emphasized public service ethics training for government officials as well as skills, knowledge, and technology training. Through public service ethics training, government officials formed public servant mindsets and solidified their loyalty to government.
Designing a Training Program from the Trainee’s Perspective
The contents of training programs should be developed from the trainees’ perspective, not from the provider’s perspective only. Of course, government needs to reflect its policy direction in training programs. However, officials know well what they need to perform their functional responsibilities. It is important to reflect the needs of existing officials. The Korean government conducts needs analysis on a regular basis in order to improve the quality of its training programs.
Lessons and Implications
|Subject||Government and Law < Public Administration|