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Visionary and Sustainable Leadership for E-Government

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Visionary and Sustainable Leadership for E-Government06



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Title Visionary and Sustainable Leadership for E-Government
Similar Titles
Material Type Reports
Date 2015
Language Korean
File Type Theme
Subject Government and Law < Governance
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Abstract

Sub-Theme 2 | Visionary and Sustainable Leadership for E-Government



Though Korea’s E-Government was initiated by the Kim Dae-jung administration in the early 2000s, the Korean government had long promoted computerization as a way to improve administrative efficiency. President Park Chung-hee introduced the first five-year basic plan of administrative computerization (1978-1982); and while the second five-year basic plan continued to be implemented, the National Basic Information System (NBIS) project was launched by the Chun Doo-hwan administration to establish administrative networks and digitize key administrative databases such as residence and vehicle registration. In 1994, the Korean government under the Kim Young-sam administration actively introduced national informatization initiatives to construct internet infrastructure through the high-speed broadband network project conceived by the Ministry of Information and Communication (MIC). These initiatives were continued by the Kim Dae-jung and the Roh Mu-hyun administrations.



On the basis of continued efforts by the Korean government to establish key administrative computerization and networks as well as national basic information systems and broadband infrastructure, a plan to develop E-Government was formally introduced as part of the administrative reform program of the Kim Dae-jung administration in response to the Asian financial crisis of 1997. President Kim proposed a vision of an information-knowledge society and made it a national agenda. He also introduced an E-Government initiative and promoted it through the presidential committee on administration innovation. The special committee on E-Government proposed ##3D_LAYER##11 E-Government projects[18]##3D_TEXT:They include Government for Citizens (G4C: Citizen Service Portal), Social Insurance Information System (SIIS), Korean Online E-Procurement System (KONEPS), Home Tax Service (HTS), National Finance Information System (NAFIS), Local Government Information Network System (LGIN), National Education Information System (NEIS), Personnel Policy Support System (PPSS), Electronic Document Management System (EDMS), E-Signature, and Government Integrated Computer Center (Ahn, 2016).##3D_LAYER_END##  which became the cornerstone of the current E-Government (see appendix for more details). The special committee on E-Government formed a working-level committee which held weekly meetings and closely monitored the progress of each E-Government project in collaboration with related national agencies (Figure 6). With his special interest in E-Government and informatization in general, president Kim issued an executive order to create a Chief Information Officer (CIO) position in each national agency who would be responsible for information systems in their agency. The E-Government initiative undertaken by the Kim Dae-jung administration was further promoted by the Roh Mu-hyun administration in which many E-Government projects were advanced as part of government innovations planned and coordinated by the presidential committee for government innovations and  ##3D_LAYER##decentralization.[19]##3D_TEXT:For more details, please see E-government of the Participative Administration (2005), the Presidential Committee for Government Innovations and Decentralization.##3D_LAYER_END##


[Table 4. History of Korea's E-Government Implementation]

 


































Stage of E-Government Main Accomplishments and Laws
Initiating ICT Projects

(1960s and 1970s)
- Introduction of computers to the statistics work of the economic planning board (1967)

- Establishment of the first five-year basic plan for administrative computerization (1978)
Developing Basic ICT Infrastructure (1980-1995) - National Basic Information System (NBIS), administrative networks, digitization of national

  key databases including citizen registration and vehicle registration Formulation of the

  second five-year basic plan for administrative computerization (1982)

- Plan to distribute multi-functional office equipment (PC) (1986)

- Computing network act (1986)

- Act on establishment and utilization of network (1986)

- The National basic computing network project and administrative computing network plan

  (1987-1991)
Upgrading ICT Infrastructure and Formulating E-Government

(1996-2002)
- Establishment of a nationwide broadband network

- The 1st and 2nd national informatization promotion master plans (1996-1998, 1999-2000)

- Informatization promotion act (1996)

- Digital signature act (1999)

- Formulation of the first E-Government plan and implementation of 11 E-Government projects

  (2001-2002)

- E-Government act (2001)
Implementing

E-Government (2003-2007)
- Formulation of the second E-Government plan and development of 31 key E-Government

  projects including home tax service, E-Procurement, public service 24(Government-for-

  Citizens, G4C), administrative information sharing system Implementation of the 31

  E-Government projects (2003)

- Preparation of the groundwork for linking and integrating government institutions and

  departments (2003-07)
Integrating E-Government Systems (2008-2012) - Integration of information systems of government agencies; integration and linking of

  E-Government services using cloud computing and hyper connected networks; expanded

  administrative information sharing; implementation of 12 E-Government tasks for openness,

  sharing, and connection and cooperation Establishment of national ICT master plan (2008)

- Framework act on national informatization (2009)

- Act on shared utilization of public administration (2010)
Upgrading E-Government Systems (2013-2017) - E-Government 3.0; ICT innovation for service integrations; investment in Internet of Things (IoT), cloud computing, big data for creative economy; ICT-enabled growth and jobs

- Act on promotion of the provision and use of public data (2013)

Source: Adapted from Lee 2012b; Song 2004; Song and Cho 2007; Special Committee for E-Government 2003; MOSPA 2014. Reprinted from Kim and Choi (2016). p. 16.

Note: ICT = Information and communication technology


 
Under the leadership of the special committee on E-Government, which was strongly endorsed by president Kim, the  ##3D_LAYER##National Computerization Agency (NCA)[20]##3D_TEXT:NCA is currently called the National Information Society Agency (NIA).##3D_LAYER_END## played a significant role in crystalizing E-Government projects. As a statutory government agency, ##3D_LAYER##the NCA (later renamed the National Information Society Agency)[21]##3D_TEXT:See more details about the agency in the following website:##3D_LINK:http://eng.nia.or.kr/site/nia_eng/main.do##3D_LAYER_END## was founded based upon the framework act on information promotion and played a critical role in implementing the government’s computerization projects and developing various ICT policies such as the national computer network plan in 1989, the Korea Information Infrastructure (KII) in 1994, high-speed national information network in 2000, and the U-Korea masterplan in 2006, ##LINK_POPUP##etc.[22]##MAINTITLE:etc##TITLE:##CONTENT:As a statutory agency, it is established to provide technical expertise and implement information policies. It highlights the following missions:

1) Providing expertise in developing and implementing the National Framework Plan on Informatization Promotion

2) Managing and operating information networks of public organizations

3) Supporting and developing information communication standardization

4) Maintaining information systems for inter-agency information sharing

5) Supporting information resource management in the public sector

6) Supporting supervision, standardization and evaluation of public informatization businesses

7) Providing IT consulting services to developing nations##SOURCE:For more details, see the following website: National Information Society Agency##LINK:http://eng.nia.or.kr/site/nia_eng/main.do##LINK_POPUP_END##  The NCA managed pilot projects and actually developed targeted E-Government systems in collaboration with private information system companies which had government contracts.

 

[Figure 6. Institutional Structure of Promotion and Implementation Organizations

for Korean E-Government]


##LINK_POPUP##

Source:Special Committee for E-Government 2003, 59. Recited from Kim and Choi(2016). P.24

##MAINTITLE:Institutional Structure of Promotion and Implementation Organizations for Korean E-Government##TITLE:##CONTENT:

Source:Special Committee for E-Government 2003, 59. Recited from Kim and Choi(2016). P.24

##LINK_POPUP_END##



In summary, strong and sustainable leadership is one of the most compelling factors which drive E-Government projects simply because E-Government often requires extensive institutional and financial resources. For about four decades, the development of Korean E-Government has been primarily driven by the continued interest and commitment of government administrations to build ICT infrastructure and promote E-Government projects. In fact, many developing countries often fail in advancing their E-Government projects because they promote E-Government only as rhetoric in masterplans without substantial political support or the interest of top leadership.