With the decision to construct the new gateway airport around the Yeongjong-do island cluster, the Korean government in 1990 passed the ‘New Airport Development Law’ to provide legal support for airport development work. In 1992, it created the ‘Division for New Airport Construction’ within the Korea Airport Authority (KAA), previously the KAC, which was upgraded to an independent organization named the ‘New Airport Construction Authority for the Seoul Metropolitan Area’ in 1994.
New legislation, the ‘Incheon International Airport Corporation Law’, finally passed in 1999. This provides legal support for building an enterprise in the form of a market-based public corporation for the new airport’s efficient operation and management.
Master Plan of Phase-by-Phase Expansion
In the early 1990s, before construction began, the government made a master plan to expand airport capacity, meeting demand based on medium- and long-term forecasting. This phase-by-phase expansion of the master plan will lead to the opening of the 2nd passenger terminal after the 3rd-phase expansion concludes in early 2018.
In phase-1 construction (1992 to 2001), the Korean government planned a modern airport which was consumer-friendly for both passengers and facility users, including airlines. As one of the good design concepts of IIA, public transport was prioritized in the curbside transport plan for the passenger terminal. Buses received the lanes closest to the passenger terminal, the next lanes went to taxis, and the farthest ones to private cars.
Forecasting future demand for airport facilities correctly is difficult. From Korea’s earlier experience of suffering congestion in other transport modes like roads before, the demand forecasts were deliberately over estimated in IIA’s original master plan to mitigate the chance of congestion. For phase-2 construction (2001~2008), essential cost savings were made by modifying the original forecasts downward by more than 10%. Phase-3 construction of the 2nd passenger terminal and connecting highway is well underway in 2017 and is scheduled to end in 2018.
[Figure. 8 Aerial View of Phase 3]
Long-term Demand Forecasting
In the long-term forecasting, IIA’s international passenger numbers are expected to grow by 4.7% annually during 2016～2025. By 2030, international passengers are forecast to reach about 100 million, and the number of international flights to reach 615,000 in the year. Broken down by construction phase, the total 100 million passengers come from 54 million in Phases 1 and 2 by 2017, 18 million in Phase 3 by 2023, and 28 million in Phase 4 by 2030. ##3D_LAYER##In the final stage, IIA is projected to reach a capacity limit of 120 million passengers.##3D_TEXT:Usually the demand forecasting of airports in Korea, including IIA, is included in the ‘Mid- to Long-term Airport Development Plans,’ which are published every five years (currently on the 5th plan). But the long-term demand is forecast more precisely within each phase of IIA’s Master Plan.##3D_LAYER_END##