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Conflict Management

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Conflict Management06



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Title Conflict Management
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Material Type Reports
Date 2015
Language Korean
File Type Theme
Subject Territorial Development
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Abstract

Sub-Theme 2 | Conflict Management





 



Promotion of Public Participation




 


1)  Role of the Media


The media can promote the necessity as well as direction of a program to help organizers implement it successfully and effectively manage conflict. It can highlight positive aspects while correcting misinformation to help clear up negative perceptions. Ultimately, the media can help facilitate program implementation. In preparing the CRP project, the media took the lead to raise public awareness and deliver accurate, impartial information.



 


2)  Election & Public Discussion


The CRP program involved a voting process, opening the door to public debate. Because of this, the value of a public referendum in policy formation was acknowledged. As the stream restoration became a core issue in the Seoul mayoral elections, the candidates engaged in a fierce debate, which tested the feasibility of the policy. The core focus of the debate was placed essentially on the basic direction of the restoration program and on the resolution of issues that may arise (finance and other general matters involving vendors, traffic, etc.).



 


 [Table 1. Seoul Citizens’ Views of the Cheonggyecheon Restoration Program]



 
















































Category (%)
Ideal Image of Surrounding Environment

after Cheonggyecheon Restoration
Environment/Eco-friendly Streets 59.60
Cultural/Artistic Streets 24.20
Shopping/Fashion Streets 10.20
Finance/Business Streets 4.00
Most Important Element to Consider

in Cheonggyecheon Restoration
Environment & Ecosystem 39.40
Pleasant Space to Rest & Relax 25.80
Cityscape 22.80
Revival of Local Economy 11.20





 


##LINK_POPUP##Strategies of Conflict Management##MAINTITLE:Strategies of Conflict Management##TITLE:##CONTENT:Two more cases of conflict resolution/management are related with ① vendors: Local surveys and research were conducted to learn more about the status of the commercial and business zones in the restoration area to facilitate effective responses to potential complaints. Furthermore, the Cheonggyecheon Promotion Center was opened, and an on-site customer center installed at Dongdaemun Market, which provided consulting to some 7,200 people. Promotional activities were held and opinions gathered on-site as well. One conflict resolution example from the restoration program was the “4,200 Meetings.” Through this event, and as soon as the Cheonggyecheon Restoration Headquarters opened, its executives and staff began to visit the commercial districts, relevant groups, and the site to brief stakeholders about the program and receive their input. The official negotiating body was the Policy Council, providing a channel of conversation between the City of Seoul and the Cheonggyecheon merchants’ association. It was a practical body that helped negotiate issues of public interest, such as compensation, reaching agreements, and operation and management after completion. The Council also played a significant part in conflict resolution. ② History & culture: Although different opinions were heard and collected, decisions about the restoration of historical and cultural heritage was not left solely to the City of Seoul. Consequently, the Cultural Heritage Administration decided to lead heritage restoration upon completion of studies on the Cheonggyecheon restoration area.


 


[Table 2. The Cheonggyecheon Restoration Program: Vendor Issues & Resolutions]


 




















Minimize business interruption
Limit construction work to the width of Cheonggye Street;

Secure two lanes on either side of Cheonggye Street and space for business;

Build a parking lot at Dongdaemun Stadium and operate free shuttle busses during construction.

Revive commerce in and around the Cheonggyecheon area Provide financial assistance for building remodeling and work conducted to improve the environment at traditional markets (up to KRW 800 million);

Provide loans for redevelopment conducted to modernize the market (up to KRW 10 billion);

Provide loans for management and stability of small companies and vendors (KRW 360 billion over the following 4 years).
Help businesses desiring to move Provide administrative and financial assistance to vendors to move to their desired regions;

Pursue plans to develop a distribution site (approx. 150,000 pyeong [3.3m2]) in the Munjeong District.


##LINK_POPUP_END##


 

 

1)  Restoration Program Process

The Civic Committee for Preparing the CRP Program took the lead in collecting opinions about the restoration project from the general public, relevant experts, and interested parties. Feasibility tests were conducted and basic plans developed which involved a careful review of the restoration methods and approaches.





Restoration consensus also required close cooperation between the city government and relevant local district offices. Each of the four district gu offices involved – Jongno-gu, Jung-gu, Seongdong-gu, and Dongdaemun-gu – installed a temporary body related to the restoration to develop a system for collaboration, e.g., through a city/gu district council, and to discuss details (preliminary tests, resident opinion surveys, etc.). In addition, 25 other gu district offices joined in the efforts to promote the program to the public, provide adequate employee training, and so forth.



 


2) Development of Governance and Assignment of Roles

 


①  CRP headquarters

 


In the early days, the CRP headquarters was under the Vice-Mayor for Administrative Affairs, comprised of one headquarters and two teams. The head of the countermeasure organization of each field was held concurrently by the director or chief of the corresponding office. In consideration of the program schedule, a temporary body was set up which would later become a permanent organization.





On July 2, 2002, with the election of the new mayor, the Cheonggyecheon restoration headquarters began operating. On July 13, 2002, one Administrative Director was added to the office of the Headquarters Director to facilitate the restoration program. As for the staff, the job descriptions would be partially altered and four persons would be added as needed over the course of the program after first assigning 33 members in Phase 1. On July 20 a new position was added, “Special Advisor for the Cheonggyecheon Restoration Program,” to be placed directly under the mayor. The Headquarters would be placed under the Second Vice-Mayor for Administrative Affairs, with the Special Advisor concurrently holding the position of Headquarters Director. The original organization of one headquarters and two teams was altered to one headquarters, one department, and three teams to assist restoration planning.





The fact that the City of Seoul continued to reinforce the headquarters indicates that it emphasized its role in carrying out the program to reinforce the governance system. The headquarters appointed a permanent committee under the city council to enact an ordinance that would enable installation of the Civic Committee and secure a budget, endeavoring in different ways to maintain good relations with the city council. In response, the City of Seoul requested that three of nine committees under the Seoul City Council operate and manage the permanent committee related to stream restoration. On July 18, 2002, administrators visited the head of the Operating Committee and explained the restoration program, asking for matters to be discussed and adjustments to be made at the City Council.



 


② Civic Committee for the Restoration of Cheonggyecheon

 


On September 12, 2002, the Civic Committee was established pursuant to Ordinance #4032 “City of Seoul Ordinance on the Establishment & Operation of the Civic Committee for the CRP program.”





The Civic Committee was led by two chairpersons – the mayor and a chairperson from the private sector – and three deputy chairpersons. The Committee’s responsibilities included deliberation and decision-making on program plans, and was comprised of a main committee of 30 civic representatives from different backgrounds to review and pass resolutions at the top level; a planning committee (15 members) to mediate between subcommittees and determine what items needed to be brought to the main committee; and working level subcommittees comprised of experts to study, investigate, deliberate, and decide on matters in their respective fields.





③ Supporting Research Body for the Restoration of Cheonggyecheon


 


The Supporting Research Body for the Restoration of Cheonggyecheon was a temporary organization of the Seoul Development Institute, founded in order to work with industry, academia, government, and research bodies to conduct studies, analyze data, and develop basic plans for the success of the stream restoration. It was launched on July 1, 2002, and was active for 36 months until June 30, 2005.





The research body held various discussions and debates (debate on the restoration held by the Research Institute for National Security Policy, the Ahnmin Forum debate, Cheonggyecheon Restoration Seminar for the Future of Seoul, International Symposium on the CRP Program, etc.) to promote stream restoration.





The research body held an experts’ seminar or meeting once or twice a month to seek advice as needed on, for example, air pollution and its impact on the human body, restoration program process management, and discussions about environmental elements in financial terms. While conducting various studies, the research body was engaged in activities to promote and deliver specific program information based on academic research, both nationally and internationally.


 


 


[Figure 3. The CRP Program: Sequence]

 






 


[Figure 4. The Cheonggyecheon Restoration Program: The Process]


 




 Source: Cheonggyecheon Stream: Dream & Hope of Seoul (2003), Seoul Metropolitan Government.






 


Policy Implications


 


In a modern society with complex demands on leadership to meet various conflicts and challenges, an ideal type of leadership equipped with appropriate mechanism, requirements and developments would be transformational in its nature.





Transformational leadership best promotes organizational effectiveness and provides the role and mechanism for resolving the complicated conflicts of modern society. Democratic, creative, and entrepreneurial types are the leaders best able to provide these things. In pursuing the Cheonggyecheon Restoration Program, the leadership model that was in effect in the process of conflict management was pushed ahead through two main systems – political (the mayor and headquarters) and governance (the Civic Committee) – driven by collaboration and division of responsibilities.