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Dissemination of New Greenhouse Technologies to Farmers

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Dissemination of New Greenhouse Technologies to Farmers06



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Title Dissemination of New Greenhouse Technologies to Farmers
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Material Type Report
Date 2015
Language Korean
File Type Theme
Subject Industry and Technology < Agriculture
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Abstract

Sub-Theme 3 | Dissemination of New Greenhouse Technologies to Farmers​





1.The Spread of White Revolution and the New Community Movement



Growing agricultural crops in greenhouses is also called cultivation under structure. Growing horticultural crops such as vegetables, flowers and fruit trees in greenhouses is also called protected horticulture. In 1970, President Park, Chung-Hee took tours throughout the country. Noting that the spread of greenhouses in rural areas resembled shining silver, he called such spread Silver Revolution. Along with it, the spread of greenhouses came to be known as “White Revolution.” 



“The new community Income Increase Program” ##MORE_LAYER_BOX## While President Park conceived the New Community Training himself, no new laws were enacted, nor were new structures built for the New Community Training. Excellent New Community Training took place while utilizing previously existing personnel and structures. This indicates that President Park did not consider new laws or regulations and structures to be critical in enhancing training. In training the New Community leaders, the majority of the time was allocated to listening to success cases of several people and engaging in discussions for various problems occurring at the sites of the new community movements. 



 
[President Park, Jung-Hee and White Revolution]

 



##MORE_LAYER_BOX_END## to increase farmers’ income, which is the result of the integration of the IIPFF and the new community movement, is considered to be an important factors led to ‘White Revolution.’ The success of the new community movement can be largely attributed to the New Community Training to raise leaders of new communities, and the curriculum for the training was designed by President Park, Chung Hee. President Park identified success cases of farmers who have overcome poverty in agricultural communities for themselves rather than adhering to the plans of the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry and requested the people who experienced success to present their experiences. Holding discussions over such presentations was the central activity of the New Community Training and farmers’ presentation of success experiences was important curriculum content for the New Community Training in 1970s16. ##MORE_LAYER_BOX## The most effective education method for protected horticulture was in line with the saying: “Seeing is believing.” or “Seeing once is better than listening 100 times.” in Korean as the education stressed the importance of on-site education. For on-site education methods, study sessions, evaluation sessions, and advanced facility visitations were utilized. The reason that such education methods resulted in significant influences was as the educations were not boring,but instead involved entertainment and sightseeing as well as honest exchange of opinions, resulting in addressing and improving problems at their agricultural practices. Since training offered by the government or administrative institutes tended to be formal and were in a lecture format, it was much more effective for the farmers to visit and see the necessary skills and acquire those skills firsthand. 



 
[White Revolution through the new community movement]



 ##MORE_LAYER_BOX_END##





2. Training Course for Farmers by Rural Development Administration



Winter agricultural training courses offered by the RDA had focused on the production technology of food crops such as rice, barley and beans. Education for cash crops was initiated in 1976, later than food crops. This is because the focus of governmental efforts on farmers’ education was on production of rice as the nation was not rice self-sufficient until mid-1970s. Beginning 1976 when the self-sufficiency of staple food became stable, it is shown that cash crops including greenhouse vegetables came to be included in education courses for farmers. Farmers’ educations to distribute skills for greenhouse cultivation of horticultural crops were offered on a nationwide basis after 1976 as “Winter Farmers’ Education” by the Farmers’ Training Department of the RDA. However, as the farmers working at greenhouses needed to engage in cultivation activities during the winter, it was difficult for them to participate in the education. For such farmers, “Major Production District Visiting Education” ##MORE_LAYER_BOX## The most effective education method for protected horticulture was in line with the saying: “Seeing is believing.” or “Seeing once is better than listening 100 times.” in Korean as the education stressed the importance of on-site education. For on-site education methods, study sessions, evaluation sessions, and advanced facility visitations were utilized. The reason that such education methods resulted in significant influences was as the educations were not boring,but instead involved entertainment and sightseeing as well as honest exchange of opinions, resulting in addressing and improving problems at their agricultural practices. Since training offered by the government or administrative institutes tended to be formal and were in a lecture format, it was much more effective for the farmers to visit and see the necessary skills and acquire those skills firsthand.  



 
[Examples of protected cultivation technology distribution]







##MORE_LAYER_BOX_END## was offered during the summer when the farmers were not engaged in greenhouse cultivations. Such visitation education was offered by expert lecturers from RDA and each provinces’ Rural Development Center (currently Agricultural Research and Extension Service).





3. The Dissemination of Protected Horticulture Technology to the Farmers through Research Institutes



The “Korean Institute of Agricultural Science” (currently the National Institute for Horticultural and Herbal Sciences) was established and Dr. Woo, Jang-chun who had returned from Japan in March, 1950, began working as the head of the Institute. The governmental agency “Central Horticultural Technology Institute” opened at Dongrae, Busan, on May 20, 1953, and research on protected horticulture had begun. At that time, the facilities at the Central Horticultural Technology Institute was comprised of two greenhouses for flowers and two greenhouses for vegetables, each around 150m2, and the researches on the development of breeding technologies and early cultivations had been initiated. 



##3D_LAYER## The Busan branch played a central role in Korean protected horticulture researches##3D_TEXT:Busan Horticultural Experiment Station (2003) “Fifty Year History of Horticulture in Busan” (in Korean)##3D_LAYER_END## before the Division of Protected Cultivation was established in 1991 at the Horticultural Experimental Station at Suwon. The institution was located close to greenhouse cultivation complexes and it was also put in charge of research and technological instructions to handle difficulties regarding exportation of fresh vegetables to Japan. In 1991, a large-scale support program for glasshouses was initiated to strengthen the competitiveness of protected horticulture. In order to support the program, a Greenhouse Cultivation Department was established to develop glasshouse technologies. At the same time, hardware research such as greenhouse model development was started at the National Agricultural Mechanization Research Institute to strengthen the department’s functions. Korean greenhouse models, hydroponics technologies and information computerizing technologies for protected horticulture have been developed in the Greenhouse Cultivation Department. The Greenhouse Cultivation Department merged with the Busan Protected Horticulture Experimental Station in 2004.