1. The Current Status of Protected Cultivation in Korea
Protected cultivation in Korea has developed with vegetables. Protected cultivation area of vegetables expanded from 3,721ha in 1970 to 90,627ha in 2000, showing a 24-fold increase. Subsequently, the area decreased somewhat, to beat 66,382ha in 2010. ##MORE_LAYER_BOX##Total yield of vegetables under structure was only 140 thousand tons in 1970, but the yield gradually increased along with the expansion of greenhouse cultivation areas, reaching 412 thousand tons in 1980 and 1,017 thousand tons in 1990. The yield continued to grow and reached a peak of 3,291 thousand tons in 2005. Subsequently, with the decrease of protected cultivation area, the yield in 2010 was 2,741 thousand tons. The decrease in vegetable production under structure was not large compared to a large reduction in protected cultivation area. This was due to the fact that production per ha increased significantly by enhancing greenhouse environment using control system of combined environmental factors and by improving cultivation technologies such as fertigation and irrigation.
##MORE_LAYER_BOX_END## The period of rapid increase of protected cultivation acreage was between 1975 and the 1980s, when the acreage was nearly tripled. This is due to the fact that, with the development of agricultural materials industry, the supply of agricultural plastic films and steel pipes expanded, and demand for fresh vegetables increased as well with the growth of national income.
2. Income Increase of Farmers Growing Horticultural Crops under Structure
While Korea’s agricultural production was around 18 trillion won until 1990, the amount exceeded 30 trillion won in 2000 and reached 40 trillion won in 2010. ##MORE_LAYER_BOX##In 1989, the production of horticultural crops was about 4.5 trillion won. This has been increased to 6 trillion won in 1992, 9 trillion won in 1995, and exceeded 12 trillion won in 2010. Among vegetables, field grown vegetables continued to decrease or remained stagnant after 1995 while the production of greenhouse vegetables consistently increased. As for fruit trees and floricultural crops, the increase was rapid until 1995, but the pace of increase slowed down subsequently. Therefore, among the production of horticultural crops, the increase of greenhouse vegetables has the greatest production.
##MORE_LAYER_BOX_END## After 2000, the production of food crops gradually decreased but the production of livestock and horticultural crops continued to increase. However, ##LINK_POPUP## the growth rate of horticultural crop production has slowed down after 1995, growing from 10 trillion won in 1995 to about 13 trillion won in 2010.##MAINTITLE: More detail##TITLE: Note ##CONTENT:During the early stages of ‘White Revolution,’ vegetable consumption of city dwellers increased in accordance with the growth of their income. The demand for high-quality vegetables gradually increased, resulting in consistent growth of greenhouse vegetable production. Therefore, farmers changed their crops from food crops to greenhouse vegetables that guarantee higher income. While the areas of protected cultivation increased after 1990, the shortages of labor in farms were deepened. Greenhouse facilities were modernized, enlarged, and mechanized to address the issue but the facility improvement that can reduce the need of labor significantly have not been developed yet. After1990s, therefore, most farmers encountered limitations in labor and their income did not increase significantly. On the other hand, because protected horticulture requires advanced technologies and is influenced by regional climates, major producing districts of different horticultural crops were formed. Unions of greenhouse vegetable producers have been organized in each major producing district and union members work together for cooperative shipping and purchasing. The factors affecting income increase of farmers through protected cultivation are described from 5.3.1 to 5.3.4 in detail. ##SOURCE:White revolution of agriculture in Korea (2013)##LINK:https://www.kdevelopedia.org/Resources/industry-technology/white-revolution-agriculture-korea--04201306130126684.do##LINK_POPUP_END## ##MORE_LAYER_BOX##
3. Expansion of Korean Protected Horticulture Industry across the World
(1) Greenhouse Plants: In Korea, glasshouse construction business has decreased and the orders of glasshouses from farmers decreased rapidly as well, along with the foreign currency crisis in 1997 and ensuing economic slowdown. The industry attempted to expand overseas plastic film greenhouse installation businesses for example in Shandong Province in China, but most companies in the greenhouse business did not survive. By 2000, a handful of companies have continued on their business in greenhouse construction, and are striving to develop greenhouses well suited for Korean climate to have competitiveness against foreign greenhouse companies.
(2) The Development and Export of ##LINK_POPUP##Grafting Robots##MAINTITLE: More detail##TITLE: Note ##CONTENT:As North America and Europe realized the advantages of grafted seedlings of fruit vegetables grafting robots are now commercialized and their visits to the website of companies producing grafting robots have increased rapidly (search keyword: Grafting Robot). The demand for grafting robots will increase, considering that the robots have been exported to about 30 countries in the past 5 years and have been well received. The export of Korean grafting robot will certainly increase, compared to Japanese, since their prices are lower but their productivity and precision better than the Japanese robots. As Korea’s grafting technologies have developed in low-cost, high efficiency manner and are very stable, the technologies will be rapidly disseminated across the world.##SOURCE:Grafting Robot##LINK:https://youtu.be/ZqrtTeDuE8M##LINK_POPUP_END## : Korea’s horticulture industry experienced remarkable advancements during the past 20 years, bringing an income increase for farmers and providing fresh vegetables for the people all year-round. Farmers requested grafted seedlings to enhance the stability of cultivation since fruit vegetables are more profitable than other vegetables. Also, producing grafted seedlings result in additional values that are greater by threefold. Therefore, production technologies of grafted seedlings for fruit vegetables have become commonly disseminated in Korea. The grafts are usually the varieties that are resistant to diseases transmitted through soil and grafted seedlings usually grow well under continuous cropping and abnormal climates.
(3) Automated Roof and Side Wall Ventilation Windows for Plastic Film Greenhouses: For ventilation of plastic film greenhouses, opening and closing of the roof or the side wall windows involve rolling of the film sheets and lifting them up and down. In the early stages of protected cultivation, the ventilation was conducted manually but later by automated facilities. It is difficult to maintain the curvature of pipes installed at the structures or the consistency of rolling films. It was difficult to implement automatic opening and closing due to such issues during the early periods of ‘White Revolution’ and frequent motor breakdowns resulted in unstable crop production. In order to address such structural problems, ##LINK_POPUP##a company ‘W’ developed a stronger and more precise electric opening and closing devices.##MAINTITLE: More detail##TITLE: Note##CONTENT:‘W’ company developed DC-24V electric switch for the first time in the world in 1992, and through various revisions and on-site performance tests, developed an optimal product. As the firm has a production line fit for mass production, the firm can produce high-quality products with low prices and easy maintenance and repair. With such excellent performance, the firm is producing more than 1 million counts of electric switches, accounting for more than 70% of domestic market share and continuously exporting overseas to 15 nations including the United States, China, Japan, and countries in Europe.##SOURCE: Ventulation Controal System##LINK: https://youtu.be/Z0sbirB5K0c##LINK_POPUP_END##
(4) Technical Supports for Protected Horticulture Technologies to Other Developing Nations: The government of Korea initiated the Overseas Development Assistance (ODA) programs in 2000, which has been expanding. While several fields related to national development are involved in the program, ##3D_LAYER##the characteristics of the business involve the ‘Green Revolution’ of Korea, which allowed self-sufficiency of food in Korea, and ‘White Revolution,’ which led to enhanced quality of life for the people and, thus, increased national income.##3D_TEXT: - History of Korea’s ODA and KOICA##3D_LINK: https://www.kdevelopedia.org/Development-Overview/all/history-korea-s-odkoica--201412110000389.do##3D_TEXT: - Park, Young Ho. 2015. Korean agricultural ODA policy towards Africa : Utilizing appropriate technology. KIEP Opinions##3D_LINK:https://www.kdevelopedia.org/Resources/industry-technology/koreas-agricultural-odpolicy-towards-africa--04201509150139956.do##3D_LAYER_END## Among the ODA programs, cooperation on agricultural field is conducted by the RDA. ##3D_LAYER##Such programs include the KOPIA (Korea Project on International Agriculture), which established overseas branch offices at agricultural research institutions or colleges in15 countries including Vietnam, and assigned experts to jointly develop and support technologies, and continue on technology collaboration.##3D_TEXT:Korea Program on International Agriculture##3D_LINK:http://itcc.rda.go.kr/kopia/main/mainpage/goMainPage.do##3D_LAYER_END##