1. SCG’s Choice : Reservation of Dumping Site for the Future
After the end of burying wastes in the Nanjido dumping site in 1993, it became a huge social issue how to use the vast land area of over 2㎢. That issue was not only for the SCG but for the entire country's housing construction industry. ##3D_LAYER##At first the SCG reviewed various ways to remove waste layers##3D_TEXT:A wide array of plans were reviewed such as digging out the waste layer to be used as fertilizers, solidification treatment, sort of recyclables, decomposition with lasers, even burial on west coast.##3D_LAYER_END## and use Nanjido for something highly profitable. ##3D_LAYER##Five construction companies also formed one task force, so called the Green 21 Forum, and reviewed technologies for the early development of Nanjido.##3D_TEXT:A method that they proposed was to dig out waste layer and to separate the waste into combustibles and non-combustibles. Then a rotary kiln could be used to decompose thermally and use the residue as construction fill material for the land (ground foundations). This method was supposed to cost 1.8 trillion Korean Won and bring 1.5 trillion Korean Won in.##3D_LAYER_END## However, their plan was not adopted due to lack of profitability and secondary contamination and concern regarding secondary pollution. Despite a number of other opinions, the final choice of the SCG for the use of the Nanjido Waste Landfill was “to maintain the current status, while conducting environmental pollution prevention and stabilization work, and deferring usage for the future." The World Cup Park was thus established here.
2. Linking Eco Park Restoration with Urban Development
The World Cup Park was able to be established so quickly despite ##3D_LAYER##heavy investments##3D_TEXT:14.05 billion Korean Won was used for the landfill stabilization construction and 8.27 billion Korean Won was used for park construction.##3D_LAYER_END## because it was pursued in connection with regional development and the 2002 World Cup games. The establishment of the SangAm New Town was a core project of the 31st mayor of Seoul, the World Cup Park was a sales point that would provide success of the SangAm New Town. The 31st mayor urgently needed a project to overturn the gloomy social atmosphere resulting from the 1997 economic crisis. In July 1998 before being inaugurated as the mayor declared the 'establishment of the New Seoul Town'. The New Seoul Town represented SangAm New Town and the World Cup Park would be a park and an open space on the backdrop of the SangAm New Town. The ecological restoration of the Nanjido waste dumping site pursued by the SCG was a perfect subject to make the 2002 FIFA World Cup an environmental World Cup.
3. Refraining from Human Interference
Aside from planting some host plants and improving habitats, the SCG is refraining from all human interference. The reason why so many plants and animals live here in just eight years since construction of the park in 2002 is because the World Cup Park is not ecologically broken off with the surrounding area and the Han River, Bulgwancheon Stream, Hongjecheon Stream, and Hyangdongcheon Stream act as an eco-corridors for the park. After the park construction, the SCG planted oak trees, wild pear trees and other plants that could be used as food by animals and built an artificial wetland to promote bio-diversity in the World Cup Park. ##3D_LAYER##Corridors for wild animals such as the narrow-mouth frog, which is one flagship species of the World Cup Park,##3D_TEXT:There are two flagship species of the World Cup Park. The other is silver grass.##3D_LAYER_END## were also installed. For example, a log ramp was built on the retaining wall and an escape route was also made for animals that fell down in drainage and collecting wells. The drains installed nets to prevent falling.
[Nearby Greens and Rivers of World Cup Park]
4. Management of the Park with Volunteers
World Cup Park was not developed just as a neighborhood park for local residents, but as a park for the citizens of Seoul. ##3D_LAYER##Jayuro##3D_TEXT:A expressway running along north side of Han River and south side of Nanjido.##3D_LAYER_END## that connects Seoul north and east, the Naebu Expressway that connects east and west, Gayang Bridge and Seongsan Bridge that connects the northern and southern part of the Han River, subway line 6 World Cup Stadium Station, and the Hangang walking trail and Bulgwangcheon walking trail all help promote access of people. World Cup Park is managed by 65 public officials of the City of Seoul. However, due to its huge area that spans more than 2㎢ and diverse facilities, it is difficult to manage it properly with this manpower, and thus, volunteers also contribute. Volunteers with expertise are in charge of Nanjido storytelling, carrying out programs, operating the park information center, and providing guidance for the firefly eco center. In particular, there are 15 people who speak English, Japanese and Chinese tell the story of Nanjido to foreigners who visit World Cup Park. Daily volunteers help with picking up garbage, cleaning facilities, administrative support, and other simple tasks. Noeul Park is managed jointly with a civic organization called the 'Noeul Park People's Organization'. The World Cup Park monitors changes in animals and plants every year. The monitoring covers seven field of plant ecology (flora, mushrooms), animal ecology (wild birds, land insects, aquatic invertebrates, fish), and mineral environment (soil).
[Volunteers and Their Activities at World Cup Park]
|Expert Volunteers||Nanjido storytelling||Information to domestic/foreign visitors to the exhibit, answering phone calls, distributing PR materials, selling books published by the park, etc||15|
English 6, Japanese 6, Chinese 3
|Expert Volunteers||Program||Development/operation of eco programs, collection of data related to program operation||19|
|Expert Volunteers||Park Info Center||Information for park use, lost children care, first-aid, answering phone calls, distributing PR materials, selling park booklets, operating park information program||48|
|Expert Volunteers||Firefly Ecology Hall||Information for visitors to the firefly ecology hall and larva experience center||16|
|Daily Volunteers||Environmental Management||Picking up garbage, cleaning chairs and fences||Secondary school students, college students, adults, families|
|Daily Volunteers||Green Management||Picking weeds, planting flowers, fertilizing, watering, etc.|
|Daily Volunteers||Event Support||Assist program operation, information for foreigners, park event support, etc.|
|Daily Volunteers||Office Assistance||PR material distribution support, cleaning up, etc.|
5. Conflict Resolution
There were also difficulties in the establishment and management of the World Cup Park. There were conflicts between the civil social organizations and the SCG Green People's Committee over the construction of a public nine-hole golf course in Noeul Park. There was also a legal battle with the Korea Sports Promotion Foundation over the public golf course fee. In result, the nine-hole public golf course is being used as a public park and is being managed jointly with the civil social organization that had argued against it. This was the result of lacking communication with the people and an uncomfortable facade of building a park in such a short period of time.
[Conflict episodes over Noeul Park and Transition to Citizens' Park]