Sub-Theme 2 | State of Environmental Contamination in Developing Nations
Compared to advanced nations where industry is well developed, developing nations have more serious environmental contamination. Even though developing nations have more serious living environment contamination compared to advanced nations, they have weak administrative base to execute environmental policies. Developing nations usually possess abundant natural environments, but air and water quality is deteriorating and the generation of wastes is increasing in the process of economic development thus facing serious environmental pollutions. Due to the poor condition to execute policies to deal with such environmental problems, people’s unawareness of environmental problems and the policies to prioritize economic development rather than environment, it is difficult to execute environmental policies.
In the metropolitan areas of developing nations, fine dust and NOx are exceeding the air environment standard and major air polluters include transportation means, power plant, factory, construction, mountain fire, mountain farming and so forth. In addition, they face major water contamination problems such as the increase of biological oxygen demand, increase of total coliform bacteria, ammonia contamination and so forth. As the massive amount of waste water from farming, living, commerce and industry is not processed and flows into river, lake and ocean causing serious surface water contamination.
In case of developing nations, massive wastes are produced in highly populated and industrialized areas. The total amount of wastes is increasing due to developmental project, increase of population, economic growth and so forth. And most of the produced waste is dumped due to the low waste recycling rate causing the increase of total waste production. Especially, the recycling rate in rural areas is significantly lower than the recycling rate in urban areas.